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Essay on “Indian Expedition To Antarctica” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Indian Expedition To Antarctica

Man has been exploring land, ocean and space. It is, therefore,  natural that he should turn to the frozen regions of the earth. Indians may also feel an attachment to Antarctica because it is believed that India, Latin America and Antarctica were once a single landmass.

Antarctica is ice – bound and un- inhabited. But penguins and about 12 species of birds live there. The frozen sea has varieties of fish and other creatures. There is night for six months continuously. The sun shines continuously for six months – i.e.,  day for sex months. The region is free from pollution. The air is fresh and wholesome. The only problem is that of cold. Antarctica is called a sealed paradise on earth.

In July, 1981 the    Government agreed that Indian must begin scientific exploration of the continent of Antarctica because it was expected that the region might be rich in oil and other minerals. Preparations were begun. A 21-man team of Indian scientists landed at a point 70 degree three minutes south and 41 degree two minutes east on January, 1982. They had sailed in 600-ton Norwegain ship, Polar Circle.

The journey was completed in two phases – from Goa to Mauritius and from Mauritius to the landing site on Antarctica.

The first phase was smooth and the team  could do its work well. they flew balloons for meteorological observations. They were able to perform the difficult work of charting the echograms and  recording the magnetic anomalies of the bottom of the sea. The noise level was also recorded.

Then began the second phase. The journey through the ‘roaring forties’ as the 40-50 degree latitudes are known. It was turbulent. The ship was small and the going was rough. Beyond the ‘roaring forties’ was the region of the ‘pack ice’. Between latitude 55-60 there were ice- bergs floating with greater intensity from the side of Indian ocean.

An attempt was made to land near the Japanese station but the ice was impenetrable. The Indian Team finally landed further west. The base- camp was set up and equipment and stories were transferred to it by helicopter. During the course of their survey, the Indian scientists landed by helicopter near a fresh  water lake. Here they established a weather station, ‘Dakshin Gangotn’ which is powered by solar energy and records meteorological data. The team spent ten days there.

This expedition got certain achievements. A mount beneath the waters. At the height of 3500 metres from the sea bed was discovered. It was named ‘ Sea – Mount Indira’. Date of various kinds were collected. It helped studies in meteorogology , oceanography, glaciology , aerosol measurements, magnetic measurements, geology chemistry, biology, atmosphere pollution  and radio- wave propagation.  

The region has great riches: 90 percent of the word’s usable water, largest coal – field and vast deposits of iron ore, 50 billion barrels of oils, enormous of quantities of uranium and platinum, tantalum and lithium. We hope that the second India expedition will bring better results.  

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