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Paragraph on “Mongol Empire” complete paragraph for Class 9, Class 10, Class 11 and Class 12

Mongol Empire

At its height, the Mongol Empire covered almost the whole of Asia. It ran from the coast of China to the borders of Europe, extend north into Russia and south into Persia. No other empire in history has controlled such huge piece of territory, which amounted to about a fifth of the land surface of the world ! yet it began in a small way and lasted a comparatively short time — only two centuries. The Mongol Empire was created by the drive and ambition of one man, Genghis Khan.

Genghis Khan was born in about 1162 and he was first given the name Temujin. He was the son of a Mongol chieftain. The Mongols were a group of nomadic tribes who lived in central Asia. They were excellent horsemen and, instead of settling and building towns and cities, they kept on the move all the time. Their herds travelled with them but the nomads would rob peasants of their crops. The tribes were constantly at war with one another.

Temujin’s father was killed when he was a boy and his family then lived in poverty. Temujin determined to regain power, and found that he could command both the fear and the loyalty of others. He began to build up a group of followers, and set about uniting the Mongol tribes. To do this he had to destroy the family ties that bound the tribes. When he defeated the tribe that had killed his father, he had all people taller than the axle of a cart put to death. In this way, he gained revenge and also ensured that the young survivors would grow up loyal to him.

By 1206, Temujin was in total control of the Mongol people. He took the title Genghis Khan, meaning Emperor of All, and set out on a campaign of conquest. He organised his nomad horsemen into a ruthless fighting force that could outride any opposition. He also developed ways of bringing cities to their knees by using catapults, burning oil, and even diverting rivers to break a siege. Terrified of the Mongols, people often surrendered to them, hoping for mercy. Few got it, for the Mongols slaughtered most of their enemies. Genghis Khan determined to leave no pocket of resistance behind him as he advanced. By the time he died in 1227, the Mongols had broken through the Great Wall of China, and had driven through Russia and Persia to the borders of Europe.

Genghis Khan’s sons took over the empire.

One , named Ogadei, decided to advance into Europe. However the Mongol hordes had got no farther than Hungary when Ogadei died in 1241, and they withdrew.

Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, extended the Mongol Empire to its greatest limits. Born in 1215, Kublai conquered the rest of China and set himself up as Khan (emperor) of the Mongols in 1260. He was a less ruthless man than Genghis Khan and showed mercy towards his enemies. Kublai Khan remained in China and rules his Chinese art writing, improved roads and canals, and developed contacts with Europe, notably through Marco Polo. But, pre-occupied with China, Kublai relaxed his grip on the rest of the empire and it began to fall to pieces. Kublai Khan died in 1294 and the Mongols were driven from China in 1368. The Mongols gained their empire by being adept at warfare, and rapidly lost it because they had little ability to govern.



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