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Paragraph on “Africa” complete paragraph for Class 9, Class 10, Class 11 and Class 12


The continent of Africa is the world’s second largest continent and has about 52 nations in it. It has the Atlantic Ocean to its west, the Mediterranean Sea to its north, the Red Sea to its North east and the Indian ocean all along the Eastern coast. The northern part of this continent is covered by the world’s largest desert the Sahara, and West Central Africa is covered with thick rain forests while most of the eastern and southern part is covered by grassland or dry plains dotted with bushes. For many centuries Africa was unexplored and not visited by outsiders. Since the entire northern part of Africa was covered by the Sahara desert, the interiors of this continent were uncharted for quite some time. Over the years the Egyptian civilization came into being and the Egyptian empire developed. Egyptian traders ventured into the neighbouring areas and Europe as a result of which north Africa opened its doors to the world. Relics and artifacts of that age can still be seen in Egypt and in museums all over the world. In Western Africa the kingdom of Benin flourished and reached it’s peak between the 15th and 17th centuries. Traders of this kingdom carried on trade of spices, ivory, pepper etc with Portuguese traders.

As the years went by the American slave traders visited Africa and thousands of Africans were taken to America as slaves. In the late 19th century the European countries began the conquest and colonization of Africa, and by the beginning of the 20th century almost the entire continent was under European control and it was only between the 1950’s and 1970’s that Africa became independent. Despite this, discrimination, on the basis of human colour, still continued in South Africa till 1990 when the African National Congress, led by Nelson Mandela was legalised and it was as late as 1994 that proper election were held in South Africa and Nelson Mandela of the country.

Africa is a beautiful continent with a large variety of climatic conditions, vegetation, minerals and natural resources and wildlife. Most Africans live in the countryside and grow their own food. Since Africa is a very large continent, the climatic conditions vary from place to place and so do the type of crops grown all over. Different tribes are found all over Africa, these include the Tuaregs of the Sahara, the Masai of Kenya, the Ashanti in West Africa, the Bushmen in South Africa, the Pygmies in the Congo etc. Most of the tribes living in the plains cultivate small pieces of land and grow food enough for their own survival. The Bushmen survive on roots, berries etc while the tribes in the Sahara lead a nomadic life. Lesser basic resources like electricity, railways, roads etc have hampered the development of this continent. Africa is known for it’s wildlife, many species of which are found all over the continent.


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