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Essay, Paragraph, Speech on “Astrosat : Indian Space Observatory” Complete English Essay for Class 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, Graduation classes.

Astrosat : Indian Space Observatory

Astrosat is India’s first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory. It was launched on a PSLV-XL on 28 September 2015.

After the success of the satellite-borne Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE), which was launched in 1996, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) approved further development for a full-fledged astronomy satellite, Astrosat, in 2004.

A number of astronomy research institutions in India, and abroad have jointly built instruments for the satellite. Important areas requiring coverage include studies of astrophysical objects ranging from nearby solar system objects to distant stars and objects at cosmological distances; timing studies of variables ranging from pulsations of hot white dwarfs to those of active galactic nuclei can be conducted with Astrosat as well, with time scales ranging from milliseconds to days.

Astrosat performs multi-wavelength observations covering spectral bands from radio, optical, IR, UV, and X-ray wavelengths. Both individual studies of specific sources of interest and surveys are undertaken. While radio, optical, and IR observations would be coordinated through ground-based telescopes, the high energy regions, i.e., UV, X-ray and visible wavelength, would be covered by the dedicated satellite-borne instrumentation of Astrosat.

The mission would also study near simultaneous multi-wavelength data from different variable sources. In a binary system; for example, regions near the compact object emit predominantly in the X-ray, with the accretion disc emitting most of its light in the UV/optical waveband, whereas the mass of the donating star is brightest in the optical band.

The scientific objectives of ASTROSAT mission are:

  • To understand high energy processes in binary star systems containing neutron stars and black holes.
  • Estimate magnetic fields of neutron stars.
  • Study star birth regions and high energy processes in star systems lying beyond our galaxy.
  • Detect new briefly bright X-ray sources in the sky.
  • Perform a limited deep field survey of the Universe in the Ultraviolet region.

Why Astrosat

Electromagnetic radiation from space is distorted during passage through Earth’s atmosphere, hindering understanding of celestial objects. In 1946, American astrophysicist Lyman Spitzer had the idea of an observatory in space; his vision was realised with NASA’s launch of Hubble Space Telescope in 1990. European, Japanese and Russian space agencies followed with their space telescopes and, on September 28, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) put its own Astrosat in orbit.

Things to know about the launch

  • ASTROSAT was placed almost 650 kilometres above the surface of the Earth. It is expected to have a mission life of five years.
  • The satellite weighs over 1500 kgs and has been assembled at the Indian Space Research Organisation or ISRO’s Satellite Centre in Bengaluru. It took the agency Rs. 178 crore and 10 years to make it. The idea was conceived more than 20 years ago. The six other satellites (four from the US and one each from Indonesia and Canada) together weighed 118 kg.
  • So far, only US, Japan, Russia and Europe have own observatories in space.
  • This is the first time that an Indian rocket launched satellites from the US. The launch came hours before a scheduled meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and US President Barack Obama in New York.
  • ASTROSAT is seen as a smaller version of NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope that was launched in 1990. It will be able to detect objects in multiple wavelengths such as X-rays, but with far lower precision than Hubble, scientists have said.


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