Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “The Problem of Pollution in Our Cities” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “The Problem of Pollution in Our Cities” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

The Problem of Pollution in Our Cities

Introduction-18th century heralded the advent of industrialization. Man exploited nature for his benefits, without any foresight as to what the implications of his actions would be. In an attempt to sustain the biotic (living) world, the abiotic (non-living) world was ignored. Industrialisation, though a sign of progress, led to the urbanization. The more man is developing materially the more he is ignoring the ill-effects of pollution and the ecological imbalance. With urbanization, people from the villages migrated to the cities in search of livelihood. As the cities were unable to provide shelter for all, they took refuge in slums. The appalling conditions of the slums stand testimony to the price, man is paying, for urbanization.

Water Pollution – Environmental Pollution led to three kind of pollution, viz water, air and soil. Drinkable water is necessary for healthy survival of humanity. When factories discharge their toxic and acidic wastes, flowing towards the outskirts of various cities, they congest the pipelines in which they are flowing. This leads to leakage of wastes under the ground and thus they easily contaminate the drinking water flowing towards the heart of city. This drinking water, being highly polluted and poisonous is responsible for death of thousands of people. Due to this only, level of flourides in drinking water has drastically increased in various cities of India, causing flourosisan incurable bone disease. The situation is further aggravated by the attitude of the owners of large factories and tanneries as, for instance, 70% of the effluents draining into the Yamuna are untreated. The harmful fertilizers and insecticides have seeped through the earth and polluted the underground water. Oil slicks and pollution caused by the wastes, sewage and fertilizers have endangered the aquatic life. Polluted water in the cities results every year in epidemics of cholera, jaundice and gastroenteritis.

Air Pollution  – Air pollution is the one direct implication of industrialisation. Smokes emitted from the chimneys of industries and the fumes of the vehicular traffic cause air pollution. Delhi is the world’s fourth largest polluted city. Air pollution also increases when forests catch fire, rubber plants are gutted and plastics are burnt along with household garbage. The Taj Mahal in Agra. one of the seven wonders of the world, is affected by the fumes emitted by Mathura refinery. Reports estimate that the monument would get defaced within a span of 20 years because of the harmful effluents of the refinery.

The link between pollution and health is becoming clearer day by day.The human respiratory system has in-built traps to catch particles before they enter into living being. But the smaller particles especially those containing sulphur elude and go through the lungs.

Global Warming Green House Gases (GHGs)—The emission of green house gases has led climatic changes. The largest GHGs is carbondioxide which is formed on account of burning of fuels of all kinds. The intergovernmental Panel on climate change which is the most authoritative scientific body investigating all aspects of climate changes, concluded in its second assessment report in 1995 that the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate. The increase in pollution has resulted in global warming. The icecaps in the polar regions are estimated to melt and submerge low lying areas and islands. The depletion of ozone layer could result in skin disease because of exposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun.

Noise Pollution–Noise Pollution in almost all major cities has been reported to be the cause of metabolic disorders, hearing disorders, thus affecting the nervous system which leads to madness. Cacophonous sounds of vehicular horns, loud speakers and high pitch tape recorders etc. usually cause headache to the urbanites.

Electronic Pollution – Similar to noise pollution is electronic pollution. People in the cities watch T.V., play video games which are detrimental for general health of man as they affect the brain cells.

Soil Pollution – Modern man has choked soil with fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides; removal of forest cover for fuel, selling up of residential areas, have taken their toll. during torrential rains this results in landsides. Dwindling flora has resulted in the extinction of fauna.

Measure to Check Pollution—Pollution can be checked by setting up of treatment plants for industrial wastes and sewage. Clean Ganga Operation was undertaken successfully few years ago. Soil pollution can be decreased by the use of organic manures in the fields. Planting of more trees on the hills and slopes during the rainy season should be undertaken. A significant step to check vehicular pollution was taken when unleaded patrol was introduced. Recently the supreme court directed all car manufacturers to conform to the Euro-I and Euro-II emission norms; this would be a major step to curb air Pollution. Gases emitted by industries should also conform to safety emission levels to reduce pollution.


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