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Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Seasons – The Cycle of Changes” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Seasons – The Cycle of Changes

A season is one of the major divisions of the year generally based on annual periodic changes in weather. Seasons happen due to the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the earth’s axis relative to the plane of revolution.

As a day is the period of the earth’s rotation on its axis, so is a year the period of its revolution (our planet takes 365.24 days to complete one orbit of the sun) around the sun. In every revolution each side of the earth is turned toward the sun 365 times, so we say that there are 365 days in a year (the extra 1/4 day is added every four years to make a leap year of 366 days). The local changes in the climate of the earth occur owing to the differing exposure of its surface to the sun’s rays at different times The cause of this is that the axis of the earth slants at an angle to the plane of its orbit, so that at one point in its course, the north pole is inclined toward the sun. At another point the South Pole is inclined toward the sun, while the North Pole is turned away from it.

The recurring periodical changes in climate result in different seasonal behaviours at different points of the earth and can be termed as the cyclical changes or seasons. In the northern hemisphere, temperate and polar regions generally have four well recognized seasons viz. spring, summer, autumn, winter.

Summer: The day the North Pole is nearest to the sun is called ‘summer solstice’ . This is the day with greatest number of sunlight hours, and happens on 21st June (the sun shines on the whole Arctic Circle and is vertically above the tropic of cancer, 23 1/2 degree N of equator). This day marks ‘the start of summer and after this day, daylight hours start to decrease.

Autumn: The earth continues to revolve, the North Pole moves away from the sun and the daylight hours continue decreasing. When the sun is at its midpoint in the sky, we reach the ‘autumn equinox’ (an equinox is the moment when the sun is located right over the equator) around 22nd September. Day and night are both 12 hours long and it is the beginning of autumn.

Winter: The day when the North Pole is farthest from the sun is called the ‘winter solstice’. The sun crosses the sky in the quickest time and so this day has the least daylight hours. Winter solstice happens around 22nd December (the sun is vertical on the tropic of Capricorn 23 1/2 degree S of equator) and marks the start of winter. From then on the number of daylight hours start to increase.

Spring: The earth continues on its path and North Pole starts moving towards the sun again. The numbers of sunlight hours continue increasing. Again, a midpoint is reached where the day and night are both 12 hours long. This is called the ‘vernal’ (or spring) equinox and happens around 21st March.

The cycle of seasons in the polar and temperate zones of one hemisphere is opposite to that in the other. When it is summer in the northern hemisphere, it is winter in the southern hemisphere, and vice versa.

In some tropical and subtropical regions, it is more common to speak of the ‘rainy’ (or wet or monsoon) season versus the ‘dry season’ because the amount of `precipitation’ may vary more dramatically than the average temperature. In other areas a three-way division into ‘hot’, ‘rainy’, and ‘cool’ seasons is used. In India, evidently, this division is more pronounced with a short `autumn or fall’ and ‘spring’.

The face of the earth changes with each season and these facades give us every reason to admire our planet.


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