Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Industrial Revolution and Its Causes” Complete English Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Industrial Revolution and Its Causes” Complete English Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Industrial Revolution and Its Causes


According to Professor Ashton, “The Industrial Revolution was a revolution of ideas. Science had widened men’s conception of the universe.” The Industrial Revolution began in the second half of the 18th century. The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was coined in the 1820’s by French followers in Britain. Industrial Revolution stands for the change that took place between 1750 and 1850. The changes were in certain industries that progressed from small-scale production to large-scale production. The changes depended on new inventions, technical processes and an increased use of machineries.

Britain was the first country to change from being an agricultural country to being an industrial one. During this time, many important machines were invented. These were mostly made possible by the discovery of steam power from coal and the invention of the steam engine. Big factories were built which could produce a wide variety of goods in large quantities. New methods of transport like canals and railways were developed for transporting coal and goods from place to place. During the Industrial Revolution, the population of cities grew rapidly as people moved from the countryside to work in factories. Britain became known as the ‘workshop of the world’. The same kind of development soon began in other countries in Europe and in the United States.

There were several causes of Industrial Revolution. Increase in the population was one of them. Improved living conditions and greater medical knowledge led to a fall in death rate. Demand for more food, commodities, clothes, fuel and houses became available. All these things could be easily supplied to a large population. Moreover, before Industrial Revolution, communication was poor. With the facilities in communication system, the speed of this development increased. This helped in rectifying the weakness in the movement of raw materials and manufactured products. One can say that the way for Industrial Revolution was prepared by the first rapid improvement in the method of transport.

Large resources of iron and coal helped industrial development of Britain. During this period, Britain had a well-developed commercial system that was capable of dealing with the growing industry. Britain had shipping, insurance and banking facilities. It became a large free trade center in Europe.

England enjoyed political stability. The English were free from disturbance of foreign invasion. There was a long period of internal peace and it was not divided by extreme religious or political disputes. Merchants devoted their energy to make money. Contribution of foreign merchants who were skilled industrial traders was another important cause of Industrial Revolution in England.

Science played an important role in captivating the interest and curiosity of men. It helped men to understand the environment and control it to improve humankind. The development of scientific thought led to the establishment of the Royal Society in 1662. Engineers, scientists and industrial chemists were its members. Thus, science inspired discoveries without which the transformation of industries would not have been possible.


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