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Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Indian Dances and Music System” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Indian Dances and Music System

Nritta, Nrittaya, Natya—The contemporary Indian classical dances have their origin in Bharats Natyashastra. They are based on three basic concepts nritta, nrittaya and natya. Nritta follows the tala beat in an eloquent expression of pure rhythmic movements. In nrittyaa abhinaya is the main element which is full of suggestions and expresses rasa and bhava flavour or mood. Natya is dance used in drama. Each of these three has the soft and the vigorous aspect the laya or tandava.

Bharatnatyam—Bharatnatyam developed in south India particularly in Tamil Nadu in its present form about two hundred years ago. While its poses are reminiscent of sculpture of the 10th century onwards, The thematic and musical content was given to it by musicians of the Tanjore Courts of the 18th-19th centuries. It is essentially a solo dance and has a close affinities with traditional dance drama form called Bhagvata Mela performed only by women nonetheless its chiselled sophistication and stylisation make it a unique form of art dance.

Noted Artists of Bharatnatyam—Rukmini Devi, Bala Saraswaths, Santho Rao, Marnalini Sara Bhai, Yamini Krishnamurthy, Kamla, Vejayanti Mala, Sonal Mansingh. The predominant moods in Bharatnatyam are santham and veesum.

Kathakali—Kathakali from Kerala is classical dance drama. Unlike the others, it is dramatic rather than narrative in character. Different roles are taken by different characters, the dancers are all men or were so, till recently. It takes epic mythological themes as its content, and portrays them through an elaborated dramatic spectacle which is characterized by an other worldly quality, a supernatural and stylized large size costume to give the impression of enlarging human proposition. Mask like make up on the face is governed by a complex symbolism of colour and design.

Noted Artists of Kathakali—Ragini Devi, Shanta Rao, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Rita Ganguly, Krishna Nair, Gopinathan.

Mohinattam—Mohinattam is one of the distinctive classical dance style of India. It originated in Kerala. This form had almost become extinct when it was revered by poet Valla that Narayan Menon early this century. Since than dancers have striven to reclaim the lost repository of Mohnattam. The Indian feature of Mohinattam are its exquisite feminine charm and its gracefulmovement. It is solo dance performed by women only. In Technique Mohinattam lies somewhere between Kathakali and Bharatnatyam. The predominent moods in Mohinattam is srignaram. The noted artists of Mohiniattam are “Bharati Shivaji, Vijayanti Mala, Shanta Rao, Kanak Rela”.

Kathak—Kathak from north India is an urban sophisticated style full of intricate craftmanship. Commonly identified with the traditions of the later nawabs of northern India it is really an amalgam of several folk traditions, The traditional dance drama formerly prevalent in the temple of Mathura and Brindavan known as the Krishna and Radha Leela. Its origin are old but its format is new attributed to the genius of Nawab Wajed Ali Shahand Pandit Thakur Prasad Ji. The noted artists of Kathak is Briju Maharaj, Uma Sharma, Gopi Krishna, Kumudni Lakhia, Damayanti Joshi, Durgalal, and Devilal, Sarwats etc.

Manipuri—Manipuri is lyrical dance from the eastern region of India. Like Bharatnatyam and Odissi, Manipuri can also be broken into pure dance pattern sections. It has no dramatic extrovert expression. Jhavert sisters, Charu Malhar Bipin are noted artists of Manipuri dance.

Odissi—Odissi is a close parallel of Bharatnatyam. It developed from the musical play and the dances of gymnasiums known as the akhara. Sculptural evidence relating to the dance goes to the second century BC, A 12the century poetic work called Geet Govinda has dominated poetic and musicial content of the dance styles. The dance was performed by women called maharis in the temple of Jagannath. The present odissi is solo form evolved of all the above. The noted dancers of odissi are Sarjukta, Panigarahi, Sonal Mansingh, Madhvi Mudghal, Kisan Sehgal, Rani Karan.

Kuchipudi—A dance drama of Andhra Pradesh originated from Kuchipudi village of A.P. It combined lasya and tandana elements, folk and classical shades and strictly follows prescribed costumes and ornaments, Manduka Shabdam (story of frog maidin) Balagopala Taranga (dancing with the feet int the edges of a brass plate) and Tala Chitra Nritya (in which dancers draw pictures on the floor with their dancing toes) are other remarkable features of this magnificent dance form. Main artists are Jamini Krishnamurthi, Swapna Sundari, Shobha Naidu, Raja and Radha Reddy.

Folk Dances of India

Bhangra of Punjab—In the Punjab a virile agricultural dance called the Bhangra is popular and is closely linked with ritual importance which is given to wheat. After the wheat crop is sown, the young men gather in an open field under the light of the full moon in answer to the beat of the drum.

Rouf of Kashmir—Further north in Kashmir, the occasions of the dances are many. Rouf is typical dance of the women at spring time with interlocked separate rows made, and each Singing different line of the song almost as question answer. The steps are light moving backward and forwards with slight swings.

Some other folk dances of States

Uttar Pradesh—Nautanki, Ras Lila, Kajri Karan, Sari, Tappatrikalli etc.

Gujrat—Dandiya, Ganpathi, Raslila, Garba.

Goa—Dhakto, Shigmo, Golf, Talagadi, Tongamel, Mussel Khel, etc.

Daman—Gherba (during Diwali).

Pondicherry—Poorakkali, Kolkali, Mascarada, Kolattam etc.

Tamil Nadu—Peacock dance, Horse dance, Rope dance, Bamboo dance, Kargam, Kavadi etc.

West Bengal—Kathi Chhau, Baul Kirtan, Gatra Lama etc.

Karnatka—Suggi, Kunita, Kola Yakshagna.

Maharashtra—Dahikata, Tanassa, Dasarater, Lezin, Dandaniya, Gafor, Kathakertan, Lovani Manni etc.

Bihar—Jata Jatin, Gadur, Chhau, Kathaputli, Bakho, Ghyhiya, Samochakwa, Karma, Gatna, Natna etc.

Orissa—Ghumara Sanchar, Chadya, Dandanta, Chhan.

Andhra Pradesh—Ghanta Mardala, Veedhi, Nalkaram, Burrakatha.

Himachal Pradesh—Nati Gurukhali, Bhangra and Ras Leela.

Punjab—Bhangra, Giddha, Jhummer, Ludi Sani etc.

Haryana—Phag, Loor, Dhamal, Jhoomar, Daph etc.

Indian Music

Raga—Matanga (5th-9th centuries) deals with ragas. He says that no classical melody could be composed with less than five notes with Raga the process of dramatisation of folk music started.

Jates—Jates was defined by ten rules of grammar. Jates were the precursors of ragas.

Tala—Tala is synthetic cycle. It is synthetic arrangements of beats in cycle manner. Each cycle is complete in itself and repetitive. The cycle is divided into sections which may or may not be equal. It is formed by the addition of time units in a defined manner.

Forms of Indian Music Nibaddha and Ani baddha

Musicians in India can invent numerous musical structures with a raga and tala. These structures can either be closed or open. Closed ones are called nibaddha. Open ones are called anibaddha. Nibaddha being closedfollow tala and has words meaningful or meaningless and definite part with present beginning and end. In other words one can call it a composition. Anibadha on the contrary may not follow tala and may be devoid of words.

Kheyal—The word Kheyal is Persian. Its meaning is imagination. Amir Khusro is said to be inventor of Kheyal. It is the most popular form of vocal music in north India.

Thumri—lt is a closed form and a way of singing. It popular in the north. It is very light form and extremely lyrical.

Tappa—It is a type of singing supposed to have grown from the songs of the camel drivers of North west India. It is romantic in content with very quick cascades and cadences. The ragas are of lighter types.

Tarana—It is a form which has no meaningful words. Apart from these classification there are also forms of light classical music such as Ghazal, Qavvali, Soofiana Kalaam, Keertan, and Rabindra sangeet.

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