Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Bio-diversity” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Bio-diversity” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Biological Diversity



Biological diversity or bio-diversity is the variety of living things that we see existing around us on the Earth. In other words, existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants making a balanced environment is known as biological diversity or bio-diversity. There are thousands of living species varying in their size, shape, colour and body parts.

One finds great diversity from microorganisms to huge sized animals like elephants, trees and aquatic creatures like whales. Moreover, there is vast difference in their eating habits. Their body type, life patterns and habits of species belonging to the same class also vary. For example, some fishes live in fresh water while some live in the salty seawater. Some fishes are tiny while others are giant-sized. Similarly, some use their tail fin to change their direction while others use it as a weapon to defend themselves.

Environment is also responsible for bringing about biological diversity. There is a gradual variation in organisms living in the same environment. The main reason for this is environmental changes in a place from time to time. Great amount of variety is shown by the aquatic creatures living in ponds, rivers, lakes or seas. Animals and plants belonging to arid or desert regions show diversity from those living in coastal regions. In the same way, animals and plants of cold or snowy regions differ from those of flat plains.

Bio-diversity is important for the existence of living things. Basic needs of humans such as food, clothing, shelter as well as other important requirements like medicines are fulfilled only because of bio-diversity.

There are certain reasons for the decline in bio-diversity. The increasing rate at which the population of India is growing is one of the major causes of the decline in bio-diversity. There is increase in the demand of foodgrains due to increasing population. To meet this demand, farmers use single crop method of farming. Crops producing bigger harvests and higher prices are yield. The traditional method of multi-crop farming has decreased. This has endangered the bio-diversity in the plant kingdom.

Activities such as construction of dams, roads, industries, factories, etc. have caused uncontrolled consumption of natural resources. It has also destroyed habitats rich bio-diversity. Pollution in the environment is another cause for the extinction of various species. Increasing temperature of the Earth has proved dangerous for certain rare species as they can survive in certain specific environmental conditions. Thus, there are various reasons responsible for the decline in bio-diversity. To conserve bio-diversity, it is essential to protect and preserve endangered species.

There are reserved bio-diversity zones. In these areas, the wildlife is protected and cared. In 1975, a treaty was put into force for protecting plants and wild animals in danger of extinction. This treaty controls the imports and exports of all kinds of wildlife. In 1992, at the Earth Summit held at Rio-de-Janeiro in Brazil, a treaty for the protection of bio-diversity was accepted. This treaty laid stress on the need for development of bio-diversity.


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