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Essay on “Technological Discoveries and Applications in India” Complete Essay for Class 9, Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Technological Discoveries and Applications in India


The technological advancements of ancient India can be judged from the fact the earliest civilization of India, Harappan civilization (4000-3000 BC) can be compared with any modern civilization. Archaeological remains point to the existence of well-planned urban centers that boasted of private and public dwellings laid out in orderly fashion along with roads and drainage systems complementing them. The drainage systems were particularly remarkable for the times since they were built underground and were constructed in a manner to allow for regular cleaning.

Urban centers were often planned near riverine (bank of river) or sea-ports. Accurate weights and measures were in use and ports such as Lothal were developed as export centers of earl)” manufactured products from smelted copper and bronze. Kilns for smelting copper ingots and casting tools were in existence as were, metal tools such as curved or circular saws, pierced needles and most significantly, bronze drills with twisted grooves. There is al j evidence of planned irrigation systems and it appears that fire o and flood control measures to protect farms and villages were also in  place. Artisans made use of the wheel and clay pottery was decorated in a variety of colours and designs. Cotton was grown and used to produce textiles. Monumental architecture required considerable advances in the technology of lifting, loading and transportation of construction materials, building construction ramps, scaffolding, and related tools and implements. The discovery of ‘ion thus played an essential role in the development of monumental architecture in India, which may have in turn given a further impetus to the development of metallurgical skills. The fifth century Iron Pillar of Delhi is a remarkable example of those skills. Standing over 23 feet high it consists of a single piece of iron and has weathered over 1500 monsoons without showing any signs of rust. The pillar is made of wrought iron with an iron content of 99.72 % and appears to have been protected from rust by the application of a thin coating of manganese dioxide. By the 12th century, construction engineers were using iron girders and beams on a scale unknown in any other part of the world. The most significant use of iron beams was in the temples of Puri and Konark.

During the middle ages, India acquired a reputation for producing very high quality steel and was also able to extract zinc from its ore by the 14th century. Bidari (an alloy of copper, lead and tin developed in the Deccan) was also extensively used. The Jaigarh cannon factory was one of India’s best and before the crucial battle of 1857, the Jaipur Rajputs laid claim to owning Asia’s largest cannon.

In Rajasthan and Gujarat step-wells were built deep into the ground—sometimes descending as much as a hundred feet and large-scale observatories were built in Benaras, Mathura and Ujjain to facilitate advances in the astronomical sciences. Bengal became known for its fine muslins that were light and airy to wear in the warm and humid climate of the state. Techniques for pickling and preserving fruits, vegetables, fish and meats were developed throughout the country to prevent or delay spoilage.

The more accurately the Indian medical practitioner was able to observe reality, understand bodily functions and test the efficacy of Popular medical techniques, the more successful were the prescribed cures. Dissection of corpses and careful monitoring different diseases was an important component in the stud -1 and practice of medicine. Indian surgeons also became proficient at the repair of noses, ears and lips lost or injured in battle or by judicially mandated mutilation. By the 1st Century AD the foundations of this rather evolved medical system were in place and by the 4th Century – much of this knowledge was standardized and available in the classical textbooks of Charaka and Susruta Discoveries concerning the manufacture and application of natural and artificial dyes quickly followed. Block printing, tie-dye, and other textile-dyeing techniques were popularized. The use of mordents in colour-fast dyeing of textiles became known as did the knowledge of lacquers that could be applied to wood or leather.

‘Nevertheless, there were powerful forces at work that inhibited the growth of science and technology in India and prevented Indian manufacturing from entering the industrial era on it’s own terms. Perhaps the most important of these factors was the relative prosperity that India enjoyed vis-a-vis the rest of the world. A mild climate meant that the peasantry and working class could survive relatively cheaply. And the huge trade surplus the country enjoyed enabled the nobility and the middle classes to live lives of relative luxury and comfort.


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