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Essay on “National Census as a Tool for Planning and Development of Human Resources” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

National Census as a Tool for Planning and Development of Human Resources

In India, census is conducted every ten years to know the statistical data and information of what has been achieved and what is yet to be achieved. It also tells us about the areas which have been neglected and need greater attention. In a nutshell, census is the progress report of a nation and it provides right direction in planning and developing human resources.

Census is a very old term and Chanakya wrote on this concept in his book on political theory. Its modern version is the brain child of Americans. In fact, it is the Americans, who set the ball of census rolling in the modern and realistic sense in the nineteenth century, and India first conducted census in 1871, which was a patchwork. The first census, which was conducted constructively and later became the regular business was held in 1881. India conducted census in February 1991 also, which was the thirteenth census since its beginning and the fifth census since the attainment of Independence.

Census enumerators use a questionnaire to elicit the information they aim at gathering. The United Nations Organisation has defined the broad outlines of a standardised questionnaire. It has suggested a set of questions designed to seek information about domicile, sex, age, marital status, children, occupation, citizenship, language, religion, literacy, etc. However, these have been suitably modified to suit conditions and circumstances prevailing in each country.

The information obtained is used for compiling census tables, and then classified and inter-related to yield facts and figures about total population, male-female ratio, literacy percentage, employment situation etc. Till some years ago, the work of analysing and tabulating the information collected was very tedious and cumbersome as it was done manually and there was always the danger that by the time it had been completed, the result would become out-dated. Now the introduction of computers has so revolutionised the technique of analysis and tabulation that the results of a census can be available within a very short time.

In almost all the countries, census is held at the interval of ten years. The ten-year period has been fixed as being the most practicable for the complex nature of the task and the huge resources in manpower and money which go into its accomplishment. In a country like India, it is never possible to claim complete accuracy for the results.

Census serves a wide range of purposes. The information collected through it and the knowledge gained thereby holds the mirror to the people, so that they can have a good look upon themselves as a nation. It can educate them regarding their shortcomings and potentials: the changes in their life pattern, education, employment, health, occupational distribution, etc. It indicates what we have to plan and work for in the years to come, how many more schools should be opened, how many more hospitals would be required, how much more of water and power resources should be built, what would be the cost of now urgently required social security measures, to what extent should the production of consumer goods be stepped up, how many more job opportunities have to be created, etc.

The purpose for which census is taken is manifold. For example, the Constitution of India provides that each State will have a certain number of representatives in Parliament. The number in Parliament will depend upon the number of people in each State. The number of seats in State Legislative Assemblies and the local bodies will also depend upon the population of each electoral unit. The detailed facts about each person are required for the municipal, State and Central governments to carry on their day-to-day administration and programmes.

Census assumes great importance for those charged’ with the task of drawing the blue-print for planned economic progress of the country. They need to have accurate and up-to-date data on population patterns, educational levels, employment situation, mortality rates, occupational distribution, urbanisation, housing, etc., in order to do their task efficiently and effectively. People of the country are looking forward to the time when political freedom would acquire substance and meaning with the eradication of poverty, ignorance and disease.


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