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Essay on “India after Independence” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

India after Independence

 Essay No. 01

There is no doubt that India has made tremendous progress after Independence.

At the time of Independence, most of the Indian people led a miserable life. They lived in huts, slums and shanties. They had no facilities and comforts of life. There was widespread illiteracy and child mortality was high. There was shortage of food grains and famines were common and many people died of starvation.

After independence, the whole scenario has changed. Still a vast majority of people lives in villages. But now the lot of villages has greatly changed. Most of the villages are electrified. They are connected to big cities with pucka roads. The farmers get bumper crops, thanks to the new agricultural and irrigational methods and the fair use of new seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.

There has been a revolution in the medical science. Child mortality has greatly been reduced and life-span has been greatly increased. Nov, there are cures even for those diseases which were previously thought to be incurable such as T.B, cholera, heart trouble, etc.

New education, new machines, skills and courses have made India prosperous and an economic power to be reckoned with in the international arena.

Democracy has taken firm roots in India and a number of elections, by and large free and fair, have been held here over the years.

Heavy industry such as steel, cement, etc. which is so vital for infrastructure has been started on a large-scale.

Means of information and communication and entertainment have been revolutionized and India has become a giant in the fields of information technology and telecommunications.

India has also become a nuclear and space power and envisions to become a developed country by 2020. India has shown her military power a number of times by inflicting crushing defeats on Pakistan in 1948, 1965, 1971 and 1999.

In spite of this, there have been certain setbacks and certain intractable problems. The burgeoning population has nullified much of the progress. Rich-poor disparity in incomes is abnormal. Still there are some acute problems such as poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, corruption, female foieticide , etc. Let us hope all these will be solved sooner rather than later.

( 370 Words )

 Essay No. 02


Fifty Years of Indian Independence

August 15, 1997 marked India completing its 50th Year of Independence. This is not a long time in the life of a nation, but it has been long enough to see the dramatic changes in all areas. In 1947, we threw out the British after a unique freedom struggle which gave the world the philosophy of non-violence. Over the years, there have been many things to be proud of, but perhaps as many things to feel let down.

When our independence was in its infancy, it had to face many hard and complex problems. The country was partitioned and millions of people were uprooted. Our Government had to rehabilitate them. At the same time, Pakistan unleased tribals to attack Kashmir, which had acceded to and become a part of India. Razakaars in Hyderabad rebelled against our Government. Other Maharajas tried to form independent States. But, thank God, all these difficulties were overcome with the help of our great leaders like Sardar Patel.

The first goal achieved by free India was to consolidate the various units of the country and to absorb six hundred and odd princely States. This unified the country and its people.

On January 26, 1950, India was declared a ‘Republic’ after adopting a new Constitution. It guaranteed to secure for all its citizens justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. It declared Hindi as the National Language and 18 others as recognised regional languages. It also declared India a secular state and there is no discrimination against any person on grounds of religion, race, caste or creed.

General elections, based on universal adult franchise, have been held thirteen times during the last five decades. As a result of the elections held in 1989, National Front Government came to power at the Centre and in many States. However, in 1991, Congress again captured the power at Centre by virtue of its being the largest single party. But in 1996, the United Front again came to power with the help of Congress. In 1999, BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) came to power at the Centre. The fact in this process lies in the peaceful transfer of power every time which indeed symbolises the true democratic character of polity.

During these years, we have successfully completed eight Five-Year Plans. These have imparted a measure of strength and stability to our economy. Per capita income has been increased from Rs. 466 in 1950-51 to Rs. 9,377 in 1996-97. Both agricultural and industrial productions have increased considerably. The production of food grains increased from 52.2 million tones in 1951-52 to 199.32 million tons in 1996-97.

Encouraged by the success of eight Plans, India has now launched the Ninth Five-Year Plan. The Plan, which covers the period 1997-2002, envisages a total outlay of Rs. 8,59,200 crore. The Plan aims at the growth rate of 6.5 per cent per annum for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It assumes the Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR) of 4.3, saving rate of 26.1 per cent, Current Account Deficit of 2.1 per cent. This growth is to be achieved by 3.9 per cent growth in agriculture, 8.2 per cent in industry and 11.8 per cent in exports.

On Economic front, the Liberalised Economic Policy was introduced in 1991. At that time Indian economy was undergoing a serious crisis. Industry and agriculture were stagnant; the financial sector was in doldrums; a huge fiscal deficit was mounting with a massive foreign debt, eating into a major chunk of our resources. The masses had been facing a double-digit rate of inflation. The new policy aimed at the dismantling of controls over the economy with the state yielding to market economy. As a result of new liberalised policy, growth rate during the Eighth Plan was 6.8 per cent. Foreign exchange reserves increased to $ 29.435 billion in Sept. 1997 and rate of inflation fell to all-time lower of about 4 per cent in 1997.

On scientific front, India since Independence has continued to march ahead, pursuing a programme of using modern science and technology for national development. At present, we spend about 0.83 per cent of our GNP on S & T development. We have made laudable achievements in water management, healthcare system, and nuclear power capacity. The space programme has envisaged and achieved the objectives of space-based services in areas of communications, meteorology, resource survey and management and development of Satellite Launch Vehicles (SLV and PSLV) and associated ground system, the GRAM SAT and Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS Series) are testimony to the Indian excellence and endeavours.

However, the impact of scientific and technological endeavour is more obvious in some areas than others. Industrial advancement, noteworthy achievements in space applications, defence, advance materials and nuclear research do not quite mitigate the misery of a large sections of our population having to exist in unsanitary conditions, without safe drinking water, with little or no medical facilities to help them overcome health hazards. A large number of our villages are steeped in poverty, still unlit, lacking in schools and easy means of communication.

On the diplomatic front, India has obdurately maintained its commitment since Independence, to genuine disarmament, and has continued its work for attaining on a time-bound basis, a nuclear weapon-free world. India has never accepted discriminating regimes like NPT (Non-Proliferation Treaty) and is always happy to participate in non-discriminatory and fair global treaties like the chemical weapons convention. India feels committed to non-alignment but recognises that certain ennui has developed about it in several of old faithful member-states, and apathy in certain others. India is now experiencing a difficult phase in its relations with the West as they strive to effect fundamental economic, social, and political changes within our own societies. In the broad areas relating to India’s foreign policy, defence and strategic concerns, there is little, if any, disagreement, or difference of perception between and amongst our political parties, regions or states.

However, during the last five decades our failures have been much more than our achievements. Our greatest failure is in the eradication of corruption, which is a bigger threat than even external aggression. It is a fact that India has been listed as the seventh most corrupt country in the world. Corruption has grown because the culprits, especially those in high offices, have discovered that the arm of the law is never long enough to rope them.

If there is one gaping hole in our roster of achievements, 50 years after Independence, it is the number of citizens who continue to be ground down by poverty. By Planning Commission’s own reckoning, nearly 30 per cent of Indians live below poverty line. Poverty not only affects its victims but also acts as a fetter on the overall development and progress of society. It limits the size of the domestic market and hampers economy’s growth prospects in much the same way as deficiencies in physical infrastructure do.

As far as education is concerned, in India about 105 million children in the 6-10 age-group do not go to school. Despite various pronouncements by all the governments and various programmes attempted for this purpose one cannot deny that the situation is grim. India has the dubious record of having half the illiterates of the world by the end of the 20th century. We have failed to implement what has already been laid down in the Constitution. What we need is to ensure our major social and economic changes. The causes of illiteracy are not going to leave us. If a substantial section of population is illiterate, it is because we have continued the colonial system more or less unchanged. Though, some additional inputs have been made and some marginal progress has taken place, yet it will not solve the problem. What we need today is a mass movement, a mass awareness against this malady to better the record apart from some Herculean efforts on the part of the Government.

Child Labour assumes the character of a social problem as it hinders, arrests or distorts the national growth process and prevents the child from attaining manhood. The estimates of working children in India vary from 50 million to a number much higher. The various reasons for the child labour in the country are cited such as poverty, wage structure, employment, illiteracy and so on. To abolish or eliminate this menace from our Indian society, integrated efforts are required. For this attitudinal change and sensitisation of employers, health and welfare personnel’s efforts to encourage small family norms are called for. Also, we will have to improve the economic condition of the adult workers.

An explosive situation is developing on the employment front in the wake of massive backlog in the creation of new jobs. Official figures concede that the country has entered the Ninth Five-Year Plan with a backlog of 7 million jobs that should have been created during the last five years.

Presently we have crossed the one hundred-crore mark of population, which is about three times that of USA and thus acquired the dubious distinction of being the second most populous country in the world. Compared to natural human resources of the country, India is definitely over-populated. Over-population is also due to increase of birth rate. Our annual growth is about 2.11 per cent. Closely related with population is poverty. So long an effective control is not exercised on the population increase, the nation will not get rid of poverty. According to UN projections, India’s population certainly neutralises much of the fruits of development.

At present, India has taken upon itself one of the biggest challenges of modern times, namely, economic independence through peaceful and non-violent methods. The aim set is to conquer hunger and unemployment by the process of bold liberalisation of economic policy. The success of democracy in India depends upon the successful working of new economic policy and removal of poverty.

( 1645 Words )

Essay No. 03


Indian Villages after Independence

India is a country of villages. Nearly five lakh villages exist in India. While only about 28 per cent of the population lives in the cities. 72 per cent of the population lives in the villages. The villages thus occupy a place of great importance in the country. They are the base of India’s development in every sphere of life.

 There were many problems in the villages before Independence. The Government was quite aware of the backwardness of the people in the villages. The people in the villages were poor, backward, ignorant and superstitious. Their methods of agricultural operations were primitive. There were no schools, hospitals, banks, etc., for the facilities of the villagers. There were no proper roads, electricity and tube wells. As a matter of fact their life was a hell. The conditions in the villages were so bad that there could not be any social and cultural development of the people. But now the Government is seized of this problem and had drawn many plans and projects to help them and improve the conditions of the rural community.

Since the dawn of Independence, the conditions in the Indian villages are changing very fast. These have changed the face of the Indian villages. There are several types of changes taking place in the whole of the country.

To improve the conditions of Indian villages, our Government has implemented the scheme of Community Development Programme, which was introduced in 1952. These programmes have manifold activities. The activities have made a tremendous change in the socio-economic set up of our villages. There are various changes brought about in our villages. These changes cover all aspects of the community life.

The greatest problem in our villages was that of illiteracy. Due to illiteracy the poor farmers were the victims of superstitions and were also exploited by the money-lenders. The Government has opened night schools for the adults and primary schools for boys and girls. Now every village has its own primary school. High schools and Inter colleges are established at every twenty kilometer of distance. The result is that they are now educated, illiteracy and ignorance are thus fast disappearing.

Another change brought about in the villages is in the field of agricultural methodology. Till recently, most of the farmers were using the old methods of ploughing in their fields, or sowing seed and harvesting. However, the farmers are now using new techniques. They plough their fields with tractors, and irrigate their fields with water from tube-wells. For harvesting also, they use new machines. Now they have switched over to mechanised farming with the help of electricity. Electricity has now illuminated their huts. With the abolition of zamindari, the person who ploughs the fields, is now the real owner of the land. Cooperative societies and banks are the substitute for the money-lenders. These societies and banks lend the money on lower rate of interest and the farmers are now free from the cruel clutches of the money-lenders.

A great change has taken place in the political and social life of the villagers also. Before Independence, they had no say in the affairs of the village. Now Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat and Panchayati Adalat are there. They are their own bodies manned by their own representatives. Due to the functioning of these bodies, the villagers have now begun to understand their rights and duties. They now take more interest in politics, the transformation being complete with even the ills of politics infesting the village elections. Another great change which occurred in village community is that the outlook towards social problems has become broad. They are now no more superstitious. Litigation has been reduced. There is less thought for untouchability and other social evils. They are now not particular about purdah system. Joint family system is crumbling down here also. Bonded labour has been freed and the recovery of loans given by money-lenders has been waived off. They are not slaves now, but free.

More and more facilities are being given to the villagers in the field of cottage industry. To promote the village industries loans are given to them liberally by the rural banks. The poor farmers can now start their own village industries or such cottage industries as basket-making, the mustard and rape-seed oil, soap and rope-making, poultry, fisheries, piggeries and many other industries to improve their economic conditions.

There are changes in others fields also. Roads are constructed by the villagers. Now every village is linked by roads to other parts of the country. Similarly, sanitary conditions have been improved. Hospitals and government dispensaries have been established to remove the illness and diseases which usually become a curse on community.

In brief, the fact is that the development of villages is in a transitional stage. The villages are changing very rapidly and the main structure of the rural society is in the process of change. The economic programme of the Government has proved a boon to them and thereby an attempt is being made by the Government to convert every village into a heaven provided the village community cooperates with it sincerely.

( 856 Words )

Essay No. 04

India after Independence

Political slogans often overrun reality. When Rajiv Gandhi coined the slogan “Mera Bharat Mahan” (My India is great), people appreciated the sentiment, but very few actually believed in it. Then came along the BJP with its new slogan “India shining” riding tall over the feeling of economic optimism which was backed by the plentiful rains in 2003 and the success of the Indian IT boom. Although the BJP failed miserably at the polls, the truth was and is that India continues to shine on. Sixty years after independence, India has emerged from the shadow of colonialism to position itself as the world’s biggest and rowdiest democracy matching its political freedoms with financial ones, unleashing a surge of growth and wealth creation that is altering the lives of its millions.

Twenty years ago the world equated India with snake charmers, elephants, half—naked fakirs, the rope trick, the holy cow, crowds and pollution. Now it is just as famous for its educated person power, its Bollywood movie stars, literary giants and its steel magnates among other things. Poverty remains, but there is renewed hope. There is a palpable feeling of excitement and promise everywhere. The new slogan is “Mera Bharat Jawan” (My India is young). It is incredible that despite India’s, ‘current’ third world status, she has guarded herself from dictators, military rule, civil war or foreign invasion and she continues to shine as the world’s largest democracy. It is no small achievement that India is now considered amongthe top ten industrial world powers, reflective of the country’s self-sufficiency. It is a matter of great pride that Indians have made it to the Forbes list of richest men in the world. The private health care infrastructure in India is comparable to any of the developed countries in the world. This has led to a boom in medical tourism with patients the world over arriving in India for medical treatments. Yet the challenges faced by young India in healthcare and medicine are many and enormous. Although, the infant mortality rate has been cut down by half the female infanticide rates still loom large. Although increasing numbers of children are receiving vaccination, many Indian infantsstill succumb to malnutrition. Infrastructure strains hard to keep up with the economic boom while corruption, discrimination, religious violence, child labour and female dowry deaths still prevail. Severe disparity is shown by its various states. While states like Kerala, boast of 100 % literacy and health indicators similar to those of developed countries, other states like Bihar and Madhya Pradesh show appalling statistics. One third of the married women and 45% of children under the age ten have nutrition deficiency problems. However, despite this, it remains that India’s massive shift in global perception is not a mere illusion.

India has achieved a lot in the sixty yearspost-independence however; a lot still needs to be done. Population was and remains one of our largest concerns. It also remains the number one reason why our infrastructure is compromised, why corruption is rampant and why our children die due to malnutrition. The emphasis has to be on education of the populace and sincere efforts need to be made towards providing better health care services in the public sector. Nevertheless, six decades after her independence, the world’s eyes are focused on India and it is only a matter of time before we evolve from a developing country into a developed country.

( 571 Words )


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  1. Samrat Paul says:

    Awesome essays

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