Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay, Biography or Paragraph on “Jnaneshwar” complete biography for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay, Biography or Paragraph on “Jnaneshwar” complete biography for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.


Jnaneshwar was born in the village Apegaon, on the bank of the Godavari in the Deccan in 1271. His father’s name was Vitthalpantha and his mother’s name was Rukmini Devi. Vitthalpantha, after three years of marriage went to Varanasi and there Swami Ramananda initiated him into Sannyasa.

Once Swami Ramananda came to the house of Sidhopantha, the father of Rukmini Devi and she prostrated before Him to receive His Blessings. Swamiji blessed her and said that she would be the mother of good and honest sons. But Rukmini Devi with tears narrated her tale that her husband became a sannyasin and there was no possibility of fulfilment of her desire. Later, Swamiji came to know that the person on whom he had conferred Sannyasa was none other than Vitthalpantha, the husband of Rukmini Devi.

On his return to Varanasi, Swamiji persuaded Vitthalpantha to go back to his native place and lead the life of a householder. On Guruji’s order, he returned to Apegaon and led the life of a householder. And in due course of time, Guruji’s prophecy came true and her desire also was fulfilled.

Rukmini Devi gave birth to three. scns — Nivrittinath, Jnaneshwar and Sapandeva and one daughter, Mukta Bai. In his boyhood, Jnaneshwar used to spent his time with the Sadhus, heard discourses on religion and participated in the chanting of hymns from the Vedas and other scriptures. A strange incident happened after the holy thread ceremony of Jnaneshwar, which took place at Nasik. After the function of thread ceremony, the family was going round the Brahmagiri hill on a pilgrimage. All on a sudden a tiger appeared from the forest and it was late in the evening. In the confusion, the family became scattered and the elder brother Nivrittinath sought shelter in a cave which happened to be the abode of yogi Gohininath. The yogi agreed to give him shelter and also initiated him afterwards. In course of time, he opened before him the treasure house of spirituality and yoga. After a week Nivrittinath returned home and narrated to the family members all that had happened. After this incident their father Vitthalpantha died.

On a favourable day, Nivrittinath initiated Jnaneshwar into the mysteries of spiritual life, under the instruction of his Guru Gohininath. After the death of his father, the burden of the family fell on the shoulder of Nivrittinath. And it was specially felt by his mother Rukmini Devi, who also passed away within a short period of time.

On a certain occasion when Jnaneshwar, with other members of his family on their way from Paithan to Alandi, halted for a night in the Nevash monastery. There lived an elderly monk Sachidananda, who was incharge of the monastery. Swamiji was very ill, confined to his bed and gasping for breath. Evidently end seemed to be very near. Moved with pity Jnaneshwar sat near him, touched him and uttered some mystic syllables and to the astonishment of every one the monk regained his normal health. Nivrittinath, his brother and Guru, warned him against this misuse of yogic powers which should distract the aspirant from the final path of liberation. Nivrittinath urged him to make proper use of that rare gift by writing a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita so that the entire humanity might benefit by his special gift.

On their way back to Alandi they halted at Nevash on the bank of Pravara in Ahmednagar district. Here in 1286, at the age of fifteen, Jnaneshwar delivered extempore the exposition of Srimad Bhagavad Gita in Marathi language. It was in Ovi meter and was noted down by his disciple Sachchidananda Baba and this commentary came to be known as Jnaneshwari. This was completed in 1290 when its author was just nineteen years.

Jnaneshwar also wrote many other works such as Amritanubhava, a work based on the philosophy of Siva sutra. According to him the path of bhakti is the easiest and the best way for the devotees. He also wrote a series of short poems called Abhangas in praise of Lord Vittopa of Pandarpur. Vittopa or Vittal is the name given to Krishna worshipped along with Rukmini in the temple of Pandarpur. The bhakti of all Maharashtra Saints centre on this figure.

About a century later came Namdeva, who wrote poems not only in Marathi but also in Hindi. Many of which, in the later period are incorporated in the Sikh scripture, known as Grantha-Saheb. Though originally a tailor by profession, Namdeva spent his life propagating the Bhakticult in Maharashtra and in Punjab.

The authentic works of Jnaneshwar are —Jnaneshwari, Bhavartha Dwipika, Amtitanubhava, Changdeva-Prasashti, Haripath, Vaman and miscellaneous Abhangas. There are other works like Bhaktiraj and Panchikaran ,etc. After that he became famous not only in India but also abroad. It is not only an epitome of Maharashtrian devotional literature but it had also inspired the subsequent works of other saints, viz. Bhakta Kavir and Tulsidas. As the songs of the Alwars are in Tamil culture, the saying of Basava in Kannada cultrue, so the Jnaneshwari is in relation to the culture of Maharashtra.

According to R. D. Ranade, the author of “Mysticism in’ Maharashtra” the three great thought currents of power, devotion and knowledge meet and mingle in Jnaneshwari. Jnaneshwar laid the foundation of the religion of love, Namdev and the other Sadhakas built temple on it and more famous Tukaram shone as crest of the temple, in subsequent ages devotees came there to slake their thirst. Sadhakas came to this source and fount of devotion to quench their spiritual thirst and that stream still flows on. Jnaneshwar attained Mahasamadhi in 1296.



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