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English Essay/Paragraph/Speech on “Planning In India” for Kids and Students for Class 8, 9, 10, Class 12 and Graduation Examination

Planning In India

After gaining independence our great national leaders were keen to develop the country in a planned way. So the draft of the Five Year Plans came into existence. The main objective behind planning was the growth of the nation on all fronts and removes economic disparity. So the planning was motivated by progress in industrial spheres and improvement in agriculture to make the country self-sufficient and make Indian nation prosperous. Our first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru who was socialist in outlook took all strains in introducing Five Year Plans for the purpose. A Planning Commission was set-up in 1950 on central level to work out on planning under his chairman ship.

The First Five-Year Plan was started in 1951-52 and since then system of planning is going on. The Plans have been different in respect of targets and stresses. But the main criterion of planning has been needful development of the country in both the sectors – i.e., in private and public sectors. For this reason only we cannot say that planning in India is to grow State control on economy. There are two sectors (private and public) and targets are fixed in every plan for the two. Such heavy industries that required enormous investment and were vital for the nation, as a whole were brought under Public Sector which is managed by the government itself.

The first two Plans – 1951-52-1955-56 and 1956-57-1960-61 – were meant for ground work towards achieving self-sufficiency in foodgrain, and other agricultural product. Then, it was in the Third Plan (1961-62-1965-66) that self-sufficiency in foodgrain, expansion of industry and harnessing of the manpower for development and growth of national income were envisaged. This plan has been regarded as a mile-stone of progress in the country. Because it is plain fact that we cannot exercise our free will if we depend on imported foodgrain and other material to run our industry. Then in the Fourth Plan (1966-67-1971-72) stress was laid on the increase of per capita income to the tune of 16% per annum. This Plan was also successful in its main objectives.

The Fifth Five-Year Plan unfortunately went into difficulty being disturbed by the chaotic political situation right in the midst of its duration. Due to spurt in economic offences and antagonistic attitude of the business and industrial community emergency was proclaimed in 1975 and special 20-point programme was introduced to curb stock piling, black marketing, tax-evasion and smuggling. When mid-term elections were held in 1977 Congress (I) was replaced by Janata Party. Since these people had a different outlook about planning, they tried to amend the criterion, including duration of the plan. Annual Plans were regarded as more effective for bringing tangible and direct results. But the thinking was not determinate. It was rather half-hearted. Consequently, not only the Fifth Plan proved futile but it caused a sort of derailment.

The Sixth Five-Year Plan could not be adequately framed and practically implemented up to the restoration of Congress (I) rule in January 1980. After resumption of power by Congress (I) again the plan was redrawn by Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister.

In the Sixth Five-Year Plan, stress was being laid on such schemes as would bring tangible results for the people. Employment schemes assume much importance. Rural development was accorded ‘special treatment’. We wouldn’t have any loans etc., from foreign sources.

The Seventh Five-Year Plan envisaged a total investment of Rs. 3,22,366 crore out of which 94 per cent was financed from domestic resources and the rest from inflow of funds from abroad.

The Eighth Five-Year Plan was to start in 1990 but it was delayed on account of political instability in the country for two years. The Plans for 1990 to 1992 were taken as Annual Plans. The outlay of the Eighth Plan (1992-97) is worth Rs. 7,98,000 crore. Rs. 434,000 crore will be invested in public sector (specially for energy, transport and communication). It started on April 1, 1992. The main aim of the plan is to make strong the basic infrastructure of the country in view of the current international changes and to provide solution of problems of rise in population, unemployment and illiteracy.

Package employment covering work-education, health and family welfare would be treated as central objective of the plan to encounter the growing poverty in rural sector.

In course of our Five-Year Plans the country has undoubtedly made remarkable progress. Big dams have been made that are multipurpose. They have helped in irrigation and power generation, which is needed most for agriculture as well as for industry. We have got steel plants at Rourkela, Durgapur, and Bokaro that are of tremendous value. They are in addition to Tata Steel Plants in the country. Being an agriculture-dominating country, the fertilizers are our basic needs. We have almost become independent in the above field also. We have got our own fertilizer plants, which are a must in raising agricultural output per acre. As a result of the Five Year Plans, we can say with pride that our industries are also expanding and we are now on the path of modernization of agriculture and industry both. In defence production we are advancing at a higher pace.

There are certain people who criticise planning. Though certain problems like unemployment are certainly posing threat to the economic structure of the country and our planning has failed to tackle it but it does not mean that planning has been futile or waste of time and national resources. We must however, try to solve our acute national problems on priority basis and banish unemployment, curb black-marketing and smuggling with our full might.


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