Home » Science » Biology » Biology Text Book10+1 NCERT E-Book, English Medium.

Biology Text Book10+1 NCERT E-Book, English Medium.

biology cover picture

 

 

Prelims: 

 

Chapter: 1 DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD:

Biology is the science of life forms and living processes. The living world comprises an amazing diversity of living organisms. Early man could easily perceive the difference between inanimate matter and living organisms. Early man deified some of the inanimate matter (wind, sea, fire etc.) and some among the animals and plants. A common feature of all such forms of inanimate and animate objects was the sense of awe or fear that they evoked. The description of living organisms including human beings began much later in human history. Societies which indulged in anthropocentric view of biology could register limited progress in biological knowledge. Systematic and monumental description of life forms brought in, out of necessity, detailed systems of identification, nomenclature and classification. The biggest spin off of such studies was the recognition of the sharing of similarities among living organisms both horizontally and vertically. That all present day living organisms are related to each other and also to all organisms that ever lived on this earth, was a revelation which humbled man and

led to cultural movements for conservation of biodiversity. In the following chapters of this unit, you will get a description, including classification, of animals and plants from a taxonomist’s perspective.

 

Chapter: 2 BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:

In Linnaeus’ time a Two Kingdom system of classification with Plantae and Animalia kingdoms was developed that included all plants and animals respectively. This system was used till very recently. This system did not distinguish between the eukaryotes and prokaryotes, unicellular and multicellular organisms and photosynthetic (green algae) and non-photosynthetic (fungi) organisms. Classification of organisms into plants and animals was easily done and was easy to understand, but, a large number of organisms did not fall into either category. Hence the two kingdom classification used for a long time was found inadequate. A need was also felt for including, besides gross morphology, other characteristics like cell structure, nature of wall, mode of nutrition, habitat, methods of reproduction, evolutionary relationships, etc. Classification systems for the living organisms have hence, undergone several changes over time. Though plant and animal kingdoms have been a constant under all different systems, the understanding of what groups/organisms be included under these kingdoms have been changing; the number and nature of other kingdoms have also been understood differently by different scientists over time.

 

 

Chapter: 3 PLANT KINGDOM :

In the previous chapter, we looked at the broad classification of living organisms under the system proposed by Whittaker (1969) wherein he suggested the Five Kingdom classification viz. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae. In this chapter, we will deal in detail with further classification within Kingdom Plantae popularly known as the ‘plant kingdom’. We must stress here that our understanding of the plant kingdom has changed over time. Fungi, and members of the Monera and Protista having cell walls have now been excluded from Plantae though earlier classifications placed them in the same kingdom. So, the cyanobacteria that are also referred to as blue green algae are not ‘algae’ any more. In this chapter, we will describe Plantae under Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Let us also look at classification within angiosperms to understand some of the concerns that influenced the classification systems. The earliest systems of classification used only gross superficial morphological characters such as habit, colour, number and shape of leaves, etc. They were based mainly on vegetative characters or on the androecium structure (system given by Linnaeus). Such systems were artificial; they separated the closely related species since they were based on a few characteristics. Also, the artificial systems gave equal weightage to vegetative and sexual characteristics; this is not acceptable since we know that often the vegetative characters are more easily affected by environment. As against this, natural classification systems developed, which were based on natural affinities among the organisms and consider.

 

 

 

 

Chapter: 4 ANIMAL KINGDOM:

Through all members of Animalia are multicellular, all of them do not exhibit the same pattern of organisation of cells. For example, in sponges, the cells are arranged as loose cell aggregates, i.e., they exhibit cellularlevel of organisation. Some division of labour (activities) occur among the cells. In coelenterates, the arrangement of cells is more complex.

 

 

Chapter: 5 STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

 

Earth was made only by observation – through naked eyes or later through magnifying lenses and microscopes. This description is mainly of gross structural features, both external and internal. In addition, observable and perceivable living phenomena were also recorded as part of this description. Before experimental biology or more specifically, physiology, was established as a part of biology, naturalists described only biology. Hence, biology remained as a natural history for a long time. The description, by itself, was amazing in terms of detail. While the initial reaction of a student could be boredom, one should keep in mind that the detailed description, was utilised in the later day reductionist biology where living processes drew more attention from scientists than the description of life forms and their structure. Hence, this description became meaningful and helpful in framing research questions in physiology or evolutionary biology. In the following chapters of this unit, the structural organization of plants and animals, including the structural basis of physiological or behavioural phenomena, is described. For convenience, this description of morphological and anatomical features is presented separately for plants and animals.

 

Chapter: 6 ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS.

Meristematic Tissues

Growth in plants is largely restricted to specialised regions of active cell division called meristems (Gk. meristos: divided). Plants have different kinds of meristems. The meristems which occur at the tips of roots and shoots and produce primary tissues are called apical meristems.

 

 

 

Chapter: 7  STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS

 

You may be surprised to know that all complex animals consist of only four basic types of tissues. These tissues are organised in specific proportion and pattern to form an organ like stomach, lung, heart and kidney. When two or more organs perform a common function by their physical and/or chemical interaction, they together form organ system, e.g., digestive system, respiratory system, etc. Cells, tissues, organs and organ systems split up the work in a way that exhibits division of labour and contribute to the survival of the body as a whole.

 

Chapter: 8 CELL  STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

 

 

The detailed description of their form and appearance only brought out their diversity. It is the cell theory that emphasised the unity underlying this diversity of forms, i.e., the cellular organisation of all life forms. A description of cell structure and cell growth by division is given in the chapters comprisingthis unit. Cell theory also created a sense of mystery around living phenomena, i.e., physiological and behavioural processes. This mystery was the requirement of integrity of cellular organisation for living phenomena to be demonstrated or observed. In studying and understanding the physiological and behavioural processes, one can take a physico-chemical approach and use cell-free systems to investigate. This approach enables us to describe the various processes in molecular terms. The approach is established by analysis of living tissues for elements and compounds. It will tell us what types of organic compounds are present in living organisms. In the next stage, one can ask the question: What are these compounds doing inside a cell? And, in what way they carry out gross physiological processes like digestion, excretion, memory, defense, recognition, etc. In other words we answer the question, what is the molecular basis of all physiological processes? It can also explain the abnormal processes that occur during any diseased condition. This physico-chemical approach to study and understand living organisms is called ‘Reductionist Biology’. The concepts and techniques of physics and chemistry are applied to understand biology. In Chapter 9 of this unit, a brief description of biomolecules is provided.

 

 

Chapter: 9 BIOMOLECULES

 

Now a question that arises in our minds is: Are all living organisms made of the same chemicals, i.e., elements and compounds? You have learnt in chemistry how elemental analysis is performed. If we perform such an analysis on a plant tissue, animal tissue or a microbial paste, we obtain a list of elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and several others and their respective content per unit mass of a living tissue. If the same analysis is performed on a piece of earth’s crust as an example of non-living matter, we obtain a similar list. What are the differences between the two lists? In absolute terms, no such differences could be made out. All the elements present in a sample of earth’s crust are also present in a sample of living tissue. However, a closer examination reveals that the relative abundance of carbon and hydrogen with respect to other elements is higher in any living organism than in earth’s crust.

 

 

Chapter: 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

 

During the division of a cell, DNA replication and cell growth also take place. All these processes, i.e., cell division, DNA replication, and cell growth, hence, have to take place in a coordinated way to ensure correct division and formation of progeny cells containing intact genomes. The sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its genome, synthesises the other constituents of the cell and eventually divides into two daughter cells is termed cell cycle. Although cell growth (in terms of cytoplasmic increase) is a continuous process, DNA synthesis occurs only during one specific stage in the cell cycle. The replicated chromosomes (DNA) are then distributed to daughter nuclei by a complex series of events during cell division. These events are themselves under genetic control.

 

Chapter: 11 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

 

The description of structure and variation of living organisms over a period of time, ended up as two, apparently irreconcilable perspectives on biology. The two perspectives essentially rested on two levels of organisation of life forms and phenomena. One described at organismic and above level of organisation while the second described at cellular and molecular level of organisation. The first resulted in ecology and related disciplines. The second resulted in physiology and biochemistry. Description of physiological processes, in flowering plants as an example, is what is given in the chapters in this unit. The processes of mineral nutrition of plants, photosynthesis, transport, respiration and ultimately plant growth and development are described in molecular terms but in the context of cellular activities and even at organism level. Wherever appropriate, the relation of the physiological processes to environment is also discussed.

 

 

Chapter: 12 MINERAL NUTRITION

 

In 1860, Julius von Sachs, a prominent German botanist, demonstrated, for the first time, that plants could be grown to maturity in a defined nutrient solution in complete absence of soil. This technique of growing plants in a nutrient solution is known as hydroponics. Since then, a number of improvised methods have been employed to try and determine the mineral nutrients essential for plants. The essence of all these methods involves the culture of plants in a soil-free, defined mineral solution. These methods require purified water and mineral nutrient salts. Can youexplain why this is so essential? After a series of experiments in

 

Chapter: 13 PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS

 

All animals including human beings depend on plants for their food. Have you ever wondered from where plants get their food? Green plants, infact, have to make or rather synthesise the food they need and all other organisms depend on them for their needs. Green plants carry out ‘photosynthesis’, a physico-chemical process by which they use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds. Ultimately, all living forms on earth depend on sunlight for energy. The use of energy from sunlight by plants doing photosynthesis is the basis of life on earth. Photosynthesis is important due to two reasons: it is the primary source of all food on earth. It is also responsible for the release of oxygen into the atmosphere by green plants. Have you ever thought what would happen if there were no oxygen to breath? This chapter focusses on the structure of the photosynthetic machinery and the various reactions that transform light energy into chemical energy.

 

Chapter: 14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS

 

All of us breathe to live, but why is breathing so essential to life? What happens when we breathe? Also, do all living organisms, including plants and microbes, breathe? If so, how? All living organisms need energy for carrying out daily life activities, be it absorption, transport, movement, reproduction or even breathing. Where does all this energy come from? We know we eat food for energy – but how is this energy taken from food? How is this energy utilised? Do all foods give the same amount of energy? Do plants ‘eat’? Where do plants get their energy from? And micro-organisms – for their energy requirements, do they eat ‘food’?

 

 

Chapter: 15 PLANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

You have already studied the organisation of a flowering plant in Chapter 5. Have you ever thought about where and how the structures like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds arise and that too in an orderly sequence? You are, by now, aware of the terms seed, seedling, plantlet, mature plant. You have also seen that trees continue to increase in height or girth over a period of time. However, the leaves, flowers and fruits of the same tree not only have limited dimensions but also appear and fall periodically and some time repeatedly. Why does vegetative phase precede flowering in a plant? All plant organs are made up of a variety of tissues; is there any relationship between the structure of a cell, a tissue, an organ and the function they perform? Can the structure and the function of these be altered? All cells of a plant are descendents of the zygote. The question is, then, why and how do they have different structural and functional attributes? Development is the sum of two processes: growth and differentiation. To begin with, it is essential and sufficient to know  that the development of a mature plant from a zygote (fertilised egg) follow a precise and highly ordered succession of events. During this process a complex body organisation is formed that produces roots, leaves, branches, flowers, fruits, and seeds, and eventually they die.

 

 

 

 

Chapter: 16 PLANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

 

The reductionist approach to study of life forms resulted in increasing use of physico-chemical concepts and techniques. Majority of these studies employed either surviving tissue model or straightaway cellfree systems. An explosion of knowledge resulted in molecular biology. Molecular physiology became almost synonymous with biochemistry and biophysics. However, it is now being increasingly realised that neither a purely organismic approach nor a purely reductionistic molecular approach would reveal the truth about biological processes or living phenomena. Systems biology makes us believe that all living phenomena are emergent properties due to interaction among components of the system under study. Regulatory network of molecules, supra molecular assemblies, cells, tissues, organisms and indeed, populations and communities, each create emergent properties. In the chapters under this unit, major human physiological processes like digestion, exchange of gases, blood circulation, locomotion and movement are described in cellular and molecular terms. The last two chapters point to the coordination and regulation of body events at the organismic level.

 

Chapter: 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

 

As you have read earlier, oxygen (O2) is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down nutrient molecules like glucose and to derive energy for performing various activities. Carbon dioxide (CO2) which is harmful is also released during the above catabolic reactions. It is, therefore, evident that O2 has to be continuously provided to the cells and CO2 produced by the cells have to be released out. This process of exchange of O2 from the atmosphere with CO2 produced by the cells is called breathing, commonly known as respiration. Place your hands on your chest; you can feel the chest moving up and down. You know that it is due to breathing. How do we breathe? The respiratory organs and the mechanism of breathing are described in the following sections of this chapter.

 

Chapter: 18 BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION

 

You have learnt that all living cells have to be provided with nutrients, O2 and other essential substances. Also, the waste or harmful substancesproduced, have to be removed continuously for healthy functioning oftissues. It is therefore, essential to have efficient mechanisms for themovement of these substances to the cells and from the cells. Differentgroups of animals have evolved different methods for this transport. Simpleorganisms like sponges and coelenterates circulate water from theirsurroundings through their body cavities to facilitate the cells to exchangethese substances. More complex organisms use special fluids within theirbodies to transport such materials. Blood is the most commonly used bodyfluid by most of the higher organisms including humans for this purpose.Another body fluid, lymph, also helps in the transport of certain substances.In this chapter, you will learn about the composition and properties ofblood and lymph (tissue fluid) and the mechanism of circulation of bloodis also explained herein.

 

 

Chapter: 19 EXCRETORY PRODUCTS AND THEIR ELEMINATION

 

The process of excreting ammonia is Ammonotelism. Many bony fishes, aquatic amphibians and aquatic insects are ammonotelic in nature. Ammonia, as it is readily soluble, is generally excreted by diffusion across body surfaces or through gill surfaces (in fish) as ammonium ions. Kidneys do not play any significant role in its removal. Terrestrial adaptation necessitated the production of lesser toxic nitrogenous wastes like urea and uric acid for conservation of water. Mammals, many terrestrial amphibians and marine fishes mainly excrete urea and are called ureotelic animals. Ammonia produced by metabolism is converted into urea in the liver of these animals and released into the blood which is filtered and excreted out by the kidneys. Some amount of urea may be retained in the kidney matrix of some of these animals to maintain a desired osmolarity. Reptiles, birds, land snails and insects excrete nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of pellet or paste with a minimum loss of water and are called uricotelic animals.

 

 

Chapter: 20 LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

 

Movement is one of the significant features of living beings. Animals and plants exhibit a wide range of movements. Streaming of protoplasm in the unicellular organisms like Amoeba is a simple form of movement. Movement of cilia, flagella and tentacles are shown by many organisms. Human beings can move limbs, jaws, eyelids, tongue, etc. Some of the movements result in a change of place or location. Such voluntary movements are called locomotion. Walking, running, climbing, flying, swimming are all some forms of locomotory movements. Locomotory structures need not be different from those affecting other types of movements. For example, in Paramoecium, cilia helps in the movement of food through cytopharynx and in locomotion as well. Hydra can use its tentacles for capturing its prey and also use them for locomotion. We use limbs for changes in body postures and locomotion as well. The above observations suggest that movements and locomotion cannot be studied separately. The two may be linked by stating that all locomotions are movements but all movements are not locomotions. Methods of locomotion performed by animals vary with their habitats and the demand of the situation. However, locomotion is generally for search of food, shelter, mate, suitable breeding grounds, favourable climatic conditions or to escape from enemies/predators.

 

 

 

 

Chapter: 21 NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION

 

As you know, the functions of the organs/organ systems in our body must be coordinated to maintain homeostasis. Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another. For example, when we do physical exercises, the energy demand is increased for maintaining an increased muscular activity. The supply of oxygen is also increased. The increased supply of oxygen necessitates an increase in the rate of respiration, heart beat and increased blood flow via blood vessels. When physical exercise is stopped, the activities of nerves, lungs, heart and kidney gradually return to their normal conditions. Thus, the functions of muscles, lungs, heart, blood vessels, kidney and other organs are coordinated while performing physical exercises. In our body the neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and integrate all the activities of the organs so that they function in a synchronised fashion.

 

Chapter: 22 CHEMICAL COORDINATION AND INTERGRATION

 

You have alr eady learnt that the neural system provides a point-to-point rapid coordination among organs. The neural coordination is fast but short-lived. As the nerve fibres do not innervate all cells of the body and the cellular functions need to be continuously regulated; a special kind of coordination and integration has to be provided. This function is carried out by hormones. The neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and regulate the physiological functions in the body.

 

 

About

The main objective of this website is to provide quality study material to all students (from 1st to 12th class of any board) irrespective of their background as our motto is “Education for Everyone”. It is also a very good platform for teachers who want to share their valuable knowledge.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.