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Solved Exercise for Precis writing with Title “Communism versus Capitalism” Precis for Class 9, 10, 11, 12 and Higher classes.

Passages with Solved Precis

Never in human history has the universal in the soul of man burnt so dimly as today. It is for the philosopher to realise the human in all, Russian or American, Chinese or British. We have to give up the war mentality and the belief that we want the peace while the others want war, to find out it the basic assumption of the conflicting way of life are so completely incompatible that the only relationship between the two is war to the life.

Whereas some of us regard the leaders of Russia as gangsters who are ready to surge across Europe, Asia and America, and far-flung frontiers, in search of fresh booty, there are others who are hypnotized by the alleged moral and religious appeal of Communism. The leaders of Soviet Russia and People’s China are treated as apostles of a new religion crusaders for a new world order, who strike terror into bourgeois society by the moral authority with which they speak to the masses on the brutalities of capitalist society. To look upon Communist leaders as fiends filled with greed, fraud, cruelty and savage ambition is as extreme as to idealize them as the heroes of a new world war. Their defiance of constitutional methods, their faith in the doctrine that the end justifies the means, their use of democratic liberties for attaining power and their suppression of them when they attain it, the way in which they employ cunning and cruelty to reach their goal are often mentioned. I do not say that in the matter of civil liberties and political democracy conditions are anything comparable to what these doctrines generally imply. The communists do not believe in free speech. Where they are in power, they suppress it. They ban all other political parties. There is much resentment in regard to their interference in Eastern democracies. Apart from Tito in Yogoslavia, the cases of Gomulka in Poland, Clements in Chechoslovakia, Rajk in Hungary, Patrashcanu in Rumania, Kostov in Bulgaria, Xoxe in Albania point to the way in which nationalist sentiments are suppressed in Communist lands. Insistence on subservience to Soviet Russia in non-Russian Communist countries hurts the pride of the people. It is most prominent in Eastern democracies where, for security reasons and under cover of the Yalta Agreement, Russia is practically dominating. All these are points which are distinctly to the discredit of Communist theory and practice.

In spite of these obvious disadvantages, if Communist parties spring up and thrive in different parts of the world, it is because the doctrine satisfies certain basic human needs. Political ideologies which are committed to the maintenance of the existing economic structure, which propose to effect economic improvements for the large majority while retaining their present frame-work cannot wean people away from Communism. Communism spreads among people who are alienated from Capitalist society, who are not held together by the bond of a shared moral principle, where a majority of people do not find a meaning and purpose to individual existence in the group to which they belong. We need a new type of society whose basic concern will be the welfare of the people as a whole. We must transform the community so as to give it a new social visit The economic security aimed at in a Welfare State, cannot be attained without a surrender of some of the democratic liberties. The planned State offers a middle course between totalitarian planning and unregulated private enterprise. All these attempts indicate that there is some justification for the Communist criticism.

By fighting Communism the battlefields of Europe and Asia, we attack only the symptoms, not the disease. We fight on a material terrain when boundaries are drawn between Communist and non-communist countries, where victories are marked by triumphal arches built on waste land but not in the arena of the minds of men. It is not by burning munitions into all the parts of the world to arm everyone against everyone else, but by devoting a part of our wealth and attention to world betterment, that we can meet the challenge of Communism. In large parts of the world today we have suffering men, impatient, ready to revolt with smouldering rage against the existent order. We must demonstrate to them that democracy is a truly revolutionary force. America has the great opportunity of world leadership, moral and material. Her people are known for their idealism and generosity. Their anxiety to save the world from Communism is serious and genuine. They are prepared for extra ordinary sacrifices in this cause. But the most effective way of over-coming the social and economic dangers, which communism threatens, will be to set up a world reconstruction fund for the removal of social and economic ills in large parts of the world, for the speeding up of the struggle for world betterment. This is to make the world ‘safe for democracy’. Again while poverty and starvation predispose the suffering peoples to the acceptance of Communism, the intellectuals are attached to it as it fills an emotional void caused by the loosening hold of traditional region. Democracy must become an active faith working for freeing the peoples from colonial rule and establishing equal human rights for all racial minorities. So long as democracy compromises with its own foundations, it cannot stop the spread of Communism.

It is wishful thinking to imagine that because we feel the lack of certain liberties in Soviet Russia, which was associated with Parliamentary democracies, therefore, the people of Russia are all disgruntled and ready to throw off the ‘tyranny’ when the first opportunity arises. It is true that standards are low as compared to the American that beggars are sometimes found in the streets of Moscow, that class distinctions have not disappeared altogether etc. But the standards have improved a great deal. There is more gettable distribution of food and opportunity than ever before. Literacy is widespread and intellectual interests are fostered. Religion is tolerated; it is neither encouraged nor suppressed. Art is not decadent. Literature and drama, painting and ballet have, in some ways, achieved perfection. The children are full of spontaneous life and gaiety and their interests are served with admirable care. Attendance at the theatres and at concerts is a part of organized education. The dramatic, musical and artistic life of the country is decentralized and in every province and town distinctive developments a’e to be noticed. Above all, there is an atmosphere of hope and purpose. The eyes of Russia are turned towards the future, towards the possibilities of things. The people have a sense of pride that their country has become, through hood and tears, one of the two great powers of the world. With all this we cannot say that in Soviet Russia man’s powers are decaying. Not even the most hostile witness can affirm that any living Russian would prefer Czarist Russia to Soviet Russia.

Like all historic institutions, the Soviet system has elements of evil as well as of good. It is wrong to assume that our world is the only possible civilized world and beyond its frontiers is barbarism. If we are patient and restrained, I am not without hope that peaceful adjustments and approximations may take plaid between the Communist and non-communist world. No tyranny can outlast the unquenchable energy and adventures of the mind. Basic human nature in its impregnable majesty will triumph sooner or later over every attempted tyranny.


Communism versus Capitalism

In men, noble feelings are generally at the bottom these days. There is a race amongst mankind who throw responsibility of the present cold war fever on the shoulders of the others.

One comes across two groups of people: one which supports Russia blindly and the other which stands out against it to the extreme. Both the schools of thought are incorrect because of the extremes. Communism appeals to the man in the street. It thus challenges the existence of capitalist society. China and Russia believe in expediency. With them, the means do not matter. The end is the goal. Reason for this can be attributed to the present circumstances in which they find themselves. Communism is a negation of Liberty of speech. It is intolerant to any other political party or views. The Russian influence over the East European countries has of late come in for much criticism. It is against the self-respect of people inhabiting these countries.

Despite the above shortcomings, communism has spread its appeal to the masses because it promises plenty for all. The masses are anxious to have a Welfare State, a promise which Communism holds out.

The demands of economic development have made it incumbent upon some governments to put some curbs on liberty. Governments like U.K. and certain other countries have found this as a golden mean.

Communism has posed a challenge. It cannot be met by military aids and alliances. Its solution lies in the economic betterment of the underdeveloped areas. It is time that America, so anxious to contain Communism, takes advantage of the situation. Communism gets life from economic inequalities. The best solution lies in having a consolidated world fund for the development of economically backward areas. Democratic outlook should be developed. The cause of political freedom of colonies should be advocated and equal rights to all racial minorities should be upheld.

There is a belief that Russian people would shake off Communism. This seems to be erroneous. Standards of living in Russia have risen (though not as much as in America). It seems there is equality of distribution. There has also been and all-round improvement in arts and culture. The Russian people seem to be very proud of their achievements. The country does not offer any scope for decay in the near future. An average Russian seems to prefer Communist Russia to a Czarist Russia.

There are no set standards to evaluate the achievements and defects of the Soviet system. If the protagonists of both the sides discuss the problems dispassionately, a good solution is bound to be found. Tyranny cannot be a long living process. And if any country practices it for a longer period, it is bound to suffer a set-back.



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