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Solved Exercise for Precis writing “Tipu’s Wars of Aggression” for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Although, Tipu had long been recognized as successor to his father, and ascended the throne without opposition, it was still the throne of an usurper. For the maintenance of his authority, it was necessary to support a greater military establishment than the revenues of the country could afford, and the expedient which naturally presented itself was an extension of territory. Of his actual possessions too, much had been wrested from the dominions of neighbouring States, who were naturally eager to seize on the first opportunity of regaining what they had lost. Of these States, almost all professed a religion different from his own and this was also the religion of the majority of his subjects. It was, therefore, almost entirely on the zeal and attachment of his Moslem adherents that he depended not only for success but for security, and to secure their exertions, the most effectual method was to blend religion with politics. Hence all his wars became crusades. The extension of the faith became, of course, the motive and the apology for unprincipled aggression. And really, if we consider the pretext of the Sultan with reference to others made use of by kings and emperors nearer home, we do not see that it loses much by the comparison. Would it have been better if he had pretended that the distracted state of a neighbouring country had imperiously prescribed it to him, as a duty to humanity, to put a step to intestine commotion by taking military possession? Should we have thought more favourably of him, if he had announced that Nature had marked out the limits of empire by distinct boundaries, and that in extending his authority over all the countries south of the Godavari, which was unquestionably the particular river. Nature intended, he was only the instrument of fulfilling the divine intention? Would it even have been much better if he had given out that the legal authority of the Peshwa having been unduly weakened by the insubordination of his feudatory chiefs, it became necessary for him to place matters on their former footing, by establishing a vigorous government in the person of his own brother?-though the case, to be sure, would have been different, if taking it for granted that the Mahrattas were on the point of seizing on the defenceless country of the Nizam, and thereby increasing their power, already too formidable, he had only stepped in notwithstanding his unalterable affection for his august and venerable himself. ally, to avert the blow by seizing on as much of it as he could for

(428 words)


Title:- Tipu’s Wars of Aggression

Though Tipu succeeded his father unopposed, he was still an insurper. His authority depended on an army too costly for his revenue. he had, therefore, to extend his territory wrested from ever watchful neighbours professing Hinduism, which was the religion of most of his subjects. He had, therefore, to lean for support on his co-religionist and gave a religious bias to his wars of aggression. Tipu’s pretext was no worse than the pretext on which most European monarchs have waged their wars of aggression viz., internal distraction in a neighbouring state, extension of the boundaries of a state in accordance with geographical sequence and establishing strong government in place of one that has lost its influence.

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