Home » E-Books » NCERT » Class 12 » Accountancy-12 » Accountancy Not-for-Profit Organisation Class 12

Accountancy Not-for-Profit Organisation Class 12



Chapter-: Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation

There are certain organisations which are set up for providing service to its members and the public in general. Such organisations include clubs, charitable institutions, schools, religious organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and,societies for the promotion of art and culture. These organisations have service as the main objective and not the profit as is the case of organisations in business. Normally, these organisations do not undertake any business activity, and are managed by trustees who are fully accountable to their members and the society for the utilization of the funds raised for meeting the objectives of the organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain proper accounts and prepare the financial statement which take the form of Receipt and Payment Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting period (normally a financial year). This is also a legal requirement and helps them to keep track of their income and expenditure, the
nature of which is different from those of the business organisations. In this chapter we shall learn about the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit organisation.

Chapter-:2.  Accounting for Partnership : Basic Concepts.

You have learnt about the preparation of final accounts for a sole proprietary concern. As the business expands, one needs more capital and larger number of people to manage the business and share its risks. In such a situation, people usually adopt the partnership form of organisation. Accounting for partnership firms has it’s own peculiarities, as the partnership firm comes into existence when two or more persons come together to establish business and share its profits. On many issues affecting distribution of profits, there may not be any specific agreement between the partners. In such a situation the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 apply. Similarly, calculation of interest on capital, interest on drawings and maintenance of partners capital accounts have their own peculiarities. Not only that a variety of adjustments are required on the death of a partner or when a new partner is admitted and so on. These peculiar situations need specific treatment in accounting that need to be clarified. The present chapter discusses some basic aspects of partnership such as distribution of profit, maintenance of capital accounts, etc. The treatment of situations like admission of partner, retirement, death and dissolution have been taken up in the subsequent chapters.

 Chapter -:3. Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm –Admission of a Partner

Partnership is an agreement between two or more persons (called partners) for sharing the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all. Any change in the existing agreement amounts to reconstitution of the partnership firm. This results in an end of the existing agreement and a new agreement comes into being with a changed relationship among the members of the partnership firm and/or their composition. However, the firm continues. The partners often resort to  reconstitution of the firm in various ways such as admission of a new partner, change in profit sharing ratio, retirement of a partner, death or insolvence of a partner. In this chapter we shall have a brief idea about all these and in detail about the accounting implications of admission of a new partner or an on change in the profit sharing ratio.

Chapter -:4. Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm –Retirement/Death of a Partner.

You have learnt that retirement or death of a partner also leads to reconstitution of a partnership firm. On the retirement or death of a partner, the existing partnership deed comes to an end, and in its place, a new partnership deed needs to be framed whereby, the remaining partners continue to do their business on changed terms and conditions. There is not much difference in the accounting treatment at the time of retirement or in the event of death. In both the cases, we are required to determine the sum due to the retiring partner (in case of retirement) and to the legal representatives (in case of deceased partner) after making necessary adjustments in respect of goodwill, revaluation of a assets and liabilities and transfer of accumulated profits and losses. In addition, we may also have to compute the new profit sharing’s ratio among the remaining partners and so also their gaining ratio, This covers all these aspects in detail.

Chapter-:. 5. Dissolution of Partnership Firm.

You have learnt about the reconstitution of a partnership firm which takes place on account of admission, retirement or death of a partner. In such a situation while the existing partnership is dissolved, the firm may continue under the same name if the partners so decide. In other words, it results in the dissolution of a partnership but not that of the firm. According to Section 39 of the partnership Act 1932, the dissolution of partnership between all the partners of a firm is called the dissolution of the firm. That means the Act recognises the difference in the breaking of relationship between all the partners of a firm and between some of the partners; and it is the breaking or discontinuance of relationship between all the partners which is termed as the dissolution of partnership firm. This brings an end to the existence of firm, and no business is transacted after dissolution except the activities related to closing of the firm as the affairs of the firm are to be wound up by selling firm’s assets and paying its liabilities and discharging the claims of the partners.


The main objective of this website is to provide quality study material to all students (from 1st to 12th class of any board) irrespective of their background as our motto is “Education for Everyone”. It is also a very good platform for teachers who want to share their valuable knowledge.


  1. manoj b c says:

    Pls a/c noes send to email

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *