Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Stem Cell” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Stem Cell” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Stem Cell

Stern Cells are versatile cells that have the ability to grow into any kind of tissue, skull, head, liver and any other organ. These cells can be procured from adult patient’s own body (from his bone marrow, blood etc.) from embryos or from umbilical cord blood. They can be introduced into human body by directly injecting them intravenously.

These stem cells work by repairing the damaged part of the body. They can treat cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and neurological disorders like muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, liver degeneration and eye injuries. On the basis of their functions the stem cells can broadly be divided into three types :

(1) Totipotent—can turn into any type of cell in the body including placenta.

(2) Pluripotent—Can tun into any cell except placenta.

(3) Multipotent—Have limited uses as they can turn into only same types of cells.

The regenerative aspects of stem cells are very useful: stem cells extracted from patient’s bone marrow or in case of new born taken from umbili-cal case are simply the building blocks of life. The cells can be freeze at minus 270 degree Celsius in liquid nitrogen and can be used 50 years after a person is born to treat ailments that may develop due to genetic pedispositions.

While in the normal course of things the blood flows from the artery to the muscle and out through the vein. Here the vein is occuluded or obstructed so that the cells do not come out with the deoxygenated or unpure blood. In the stem cells therapy a balloon like device is inserted into the vein and inflated to fill up the space in the vein. This stops the flow of blood for some time and that way the cells can settle in the muscles in the affected area. This process does not even require a surgery but simple puncture. For instance, in case stem cell therapy needs to be given to patients of cerebral palsy the stem cells are injected in the internal caroted artery and the internal jugular vein in baloon to stop the blood flow. Similarly in the case of diabetes when these cells need to be infiltrated into the patient’s pancreas the cells are injected into the hepatic artery.

Stem Cells Research in India—Although stem cells research is at re-cent stage in the country. It has immense potential. India has the potential of turning its head start into a massive lead over what the medical fraternity elsewhere in the world is doing. Patients with diabetes, neurological and even ophthalmic disorder have been shown to respond to this treatment.

In India Diabetes is likely to become an epidemic by 2020; persons with diabetes are more vulnerable in case of strokes and till now treatment options have been easy to come by. Now at AIMS it has also been treated using stem cells. In neurological disorders like muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy where all seems to have been lost for the patient the situation can be reversed by stem cells. In the past few months Indian doctors have successfully treated neurological disorders. In case of cardiac patients, stem cells taken from their own sternum (breast bone) were injected directly into their heart muscle during a bypass surgery.

This is the first time that stem cells have been injected into an artery leading to the affected organ. For example, in case of diabetes patients the stem cells were injected into the artery leading to the pancreas so that they go directly into the affected areas.

As part of the faculty the AIIMS has set up an umbilical blood stem cell bank. Stem cells are collected from the umbilical cord at the time of birth and then preserved for as long as 90 years. An embryonic stem cell bank is also in the pipeline. India will become only the third country after South Korea and England to have an embryonic cell bank. At present other countries have banned this due to the ethical debate on the issue. Embryonic stem cells are collected from surplus embryos in vitro-fertilization.

Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Bank—In umbilical cord stem Cell Bank blood is retrieved from the umbilical cord which is usually discharged along with the placenta–in order to provide the solution to a host of diseases without the ethical concerns attached to it. This on purification is a rich source of stem cells. These cells are then preserved, stored in liquid nitrogen at minus 270 degree celsius. Even 90 years later this can then be thawed and used for treatment.

More then 45 disorders can be treated with stem cells from umbilical cord blood, including various genetic disorders that affect the blood and immune system. The bank will be a part of the stem cell faculty of AIIMS. The faculty will be coordinated by the Organ Retrieval and Banking Organization (ORBO) at AIIMS.

Parents who have a history of certain genetic disease should consider opting for this faculty. Cord blood stem cells benefited a wide range of recipients including the donor, his other family members and even unrelated recipients.

Thus stem cell is an immortal cell that is able to produce all the cells within an organ. The term is most usually applied to the haemopoietic stem cells of the bone marrow.

A team of doctors at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi under the leadership of Dr. P. Venugopal, has recently made another story of stem cell research when they cured Ishwar Gupta who was suffering from Cardiac myopathy–a disease which was causing his heart muscle to degenerate. Doctors injected stem cells taken from a bone in leg into his tiny heart. Now AIIMS has marked a global first in pioneering stem cell medicine by the injection method placing institute right at the top of world medicine map.

As part of the path breaking study conducted from February 2003 to January 2005, thirty five cardiac patients have been given stem cells treatment and have been monitored at particular intervals. There have been no moralities. In a parallel move two patients needing 36 units of insulin daily were injected with stem cells and today they need to pop half a tablet. Similarly muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy patients are also being treated by this injection method. And it is hoped that very soon every immune disorder and cancer will be treated.


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