Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Industrial Revolution in India” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Industrial Revolution in India” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Industrial Revolution in India


The Beginning of Industrial Era in India

In any country, be it least developed under developed or advanced, the industrial sectors from the sheet anchor for the generation and development of country’s productive forces. There is a strong case for industrialization of countries like India which has vast manpower, large and varied resources and continental dimensions.

The first plan was not as important as far as industrial development is concerned. Of the total expenditure of Rs. 1,960 crores in the plan the industrial sector received Rs. 55 crores which was 2.8 percent during the second five year plan (1956-61). Three new plants were set up in the public sector and the capacity of the two existing steel works in the private sector was doubled. In this plan new steel plants got a severe jolt. The share of industrial sector was Rs. 938 crore which is 20.1 per cent of the total plan and three plans the progress was significant. Thereafter for nearly three years, the economy was subjected to considerable stress and strain. Many industries were severely affected by the shortage of raw materials and exponent arising from the pause in external aid in 1965. Total expenditure under the third plan was Rs. 8577 crore of which the share of industrial sector was Rs. 1,726 (20.1 percent). In the fourth plan (1969-74) the performance of the industrial sector fell short of expectation, both in terms of production and investment. On an average, the growth rate in industry was around 5 percent which was much below the targeted growth rate of 8 percent envisaged in the plan. Main objectives of fifth plan (1979-80) were self-reliance and growth with social justice. The revised fifth plan provided a total outlay of Rs. 10.135 crore in organized industry and mining . This accounted for nearly 26 percent of the public sector outlay of the fifth plan. During this annual growth rate was only 5.3% which was much below the target. The sixth plan (1980-85) intended to work within the development strategy of structural diversification, modernization and self-reliance. The aggregate resources allotted to industry and mineral worked to be Rs. 22,187 crore i.e. 22.8 percent of the total progress of the industrial growth during the sixth plan. The total investment in industry in seventh plan (1985-90) was Rs. 22,460 crore or 12 percent of the plan outlay. The actual average rate of growth during the seventh plan worked out at 8.4 percentannum. Thus the target was exceeded as the expected growth rate was 8 percent.

In the eight plan (1992-97) the economy was liberalized. Eighth plan below that the desired growth of different sectors could be achieved primarily through modification in industrial trade and fiscal polices. During the Eighth Plan the private sector had come of age and had developed considerable entrepreneurial management, technological, financial and marketing strength. The overall outlay envisaged in the eight plan for public sector was Rs. 40,670 crores. The basic purpose of this allocation was to upgrade technology in this sector and bring it to international levels. The overall industrial growth rate was fixed at 8 percent per annum for the eighth plan.

Industrial Policy-At the time of independence Indian industries were facing many problems such as shortage of raw materials, bad industrial relations and marketing facilities etc. However after independence, government made various industrial policies to solve their problems.

First Industrial policy resolution of 1948

The first industrial policy gave emphasis to industry where state had a monopoly (arms and ammunition etc.) there also existed mixed sector industries (coal, iron and steel etc.) Government controlled industries (automobiles, heavy machinery etc.) and private industries. The industrial policy resolution also stressed the importance of cottage and small scale industries.

Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956

This resolution changed mixed economy approach by giving more importance to public sector. The private sector was given a fair and non-discriminatory treatment in the resolution. It encouraged village and small industries. The resolution brought out the importance of removing regional disparities in our country. A sufficient attention was paid by the resolution for providing facilities to labourers. Industrial Policy 1970 The government announced a new industrial policy in February 1970. The NIP was in accordance with the recommendation of the Dutt Committee and Administrative Reforms Commission. Following was the basic features of the NIP 70.

(1) This policy provided that there should be a class of core industries consisting of basic, critical and strategic industries in economy.

(2) All new investment prepositions of over Rs. 5 crore shall be deemed to be in the heavy investment sector.

(3) The joint sector concept should be accepted in principle.

(4) The existing policy of reservation for the small sector will be continued.

(5) The exemption limit from licensing provision will be raised to Rs. 1 lakh.

Industrial Policy of 1980-The main objectives of 1980 industrial policy were the revival of economy, effective operational management of public sector, promotion of industries in rural areas, removal of regional imbalance, concessions for industries engaged in research and development of optimum utilization of installed capacity.

Industrial Policy 1999 the basic aim of new policy were to

(a) Consolidate the strengths built up during the last four decades of economic planning and to build on the gains already made.

(b) correct the weakness that may have crept in the industrial structure as it has developed over the last four decades.

(c) maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment.

(d) To attain international competitiveness government has decided to liberalise industrial licensing policy, foreign investment, foreign technology agreement, public sector policy and MRTP for the sake of realization of objectives of the policy. The new industrial policy has abolished industrial licensing. The new industrial policy has also scrapped the asset limit of MRTP companies.



  1. Jamshedpur (Tisco Plants) Jharkhand
  2. BurnpurHarapurKulti (TISCO Plants) West Bengal
  3. Vijay Nagar Plants Karnataka
  4. Bhadravati Karnataka
  5. Salem Tamil Nadu
  6. Vishakhapatnam Plants Andhra Pradesh
  7. Bhilai Steel Plant Chhattisgarh
  8. Raurkela Steel Plant Orissa
  9. Durgapur Plants Bengal
  10. Bokaro Plants (BS), Steel Limited (BSP) Jharkhand


Copper is produced at three centres :

  1. Maubhandar near Ghatsila in Singhbhumi district (Jharkhand)
  2. Khetri in Jhunjhunu district (Rajasthan)
  3. Balaghat district of (Madhya Pradesh)


In India there are 5 smelting plants of Lead Zinc

  1. Alwaye (Kerala)
  2. Debari (Rajasthan)
  3. Chanderia (Rajasthan)
  4. Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)
  5. Hindustan Zinc Limited situated of Tundoo (near Dhanbad, Jharkhand). The supply of lead concenterates in made from ZawarDariba areas/ regions of Rajasthan.


  1. Hindustan Ship yards (Vishakapatnam)
  2. Mazgaon Dock (Mumbai)
  3. Cochin Shipyard (Cochin)
  4. Garden Reach Workship (Kolkata)


  1. Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) Varanasi
  2. Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) Bhopal
  3. Diesel Component Works (DCW) Patiala
  4. Integrated Coaches Factory Perambur (Chennai)
  5. Chittranjan Locomotive Works Chhitranjan (W. Bengal)
  6. Wheel and Axle Plant Bangalore
  7. Rail Coach Factory Kapurthala (Punjab)


  1. Saharanpur, Moradabad, Agra, Aligarh, Kanpur, Lucknow, Varanasi (All in UP)
  2. Gwalior, Ujjain, Dewas, lndore, Burhanpur (All in MP)
  3. Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Porbandar, Vadodra, Surat (All in Gujrat)
  1. Jalgaon, Aurangabad, Nagpur, Wardha, Pune, Sangli, Solapur, Kolhapur (All in Maharashtra)
  2. Hubli, Bellary, Devangere, Bangalore, Myssore (All in Karnataka)
  3. Salem, Coimbatore, Thanjuvar, Madurai, Tuticorin, Tirunvelli (All in Tamil Nadu)
  4. Warangal, Hyderabad, Gunture (All in AP)
  5. Murshidabad, Kolkata, Haora, Hugli (All in Bengal)

Major Industrial Regions of India

  1. Mumbai Pune Region
  2. Hugli Region
  3. Bangalore Tamil Nadu region
  4. Gujrat Region
  5. Chhotanagpur Region
  6. Vishakhapatnam Guntur region
  7. Gurgaon Delhi Meerut region
  8. KottamThiruvanthapuram region

Minor Industrial Regions

  1. Ambala-Amristar region
  2. Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar-Bijnaur region
  3. Indore-Dewas region
  4. Jaipur-Ajmer region
  5. Kolhapur-South-Kannada region
  6. Northern Malabar region
  7. Middle Malabar region
  8. Allahabad-Varanasi-Mirzapur region
  9. Bhojpur-Munghur region
  10. Durgapur-Raipur region
  11. Bilaspur-Korba region
  12. Brahmaputra Velley region
  13. Adilabad-Nizamabad region

Industrial Districts

(1) Kanpur, (2) Agra, (3) Hyderabad, (4) Nagpur, (5) Gwalior, (6) Bhopal, (7) Lucknow, (8) Jalpaiguri, (9) Cuttack, (10) Gorakhpur, (11) Aligarh, (12) Kota, (13) Purnia, (14) Jabalpur, (15) Bareily.

Software Technology Parks (STP)

(1) Sri Nagar, (2) Mohali, (3) Chandigarh, (4) Noida, (5) Jaipur, (6) Indore, (7) Pune, (8) Mumbai, (9) Hyderabad, (10) Bangalore, (11) Mysore, (12) Coimbatore. (13) Chennai, (14) Vishakhapatna, (15) Hyderabad, (16) Bhubhneshwar, (17) Kolkata, (18) Guwahati, (19) Gandhinagar.


Mineral                                                                     Producing States

Antimary                                                                  Punjab Karnataka

Bauxite                                                                      Bihar, MP, Gujrat                                      

Chromite                                                                  Orissa, Maharashtra

 Coal                                                                           Jharkhand, Bngal

Copper                                                                       Jharkhand, Rajasthan, MP

Diaspore                                                                   UP, MP

Gold                                                                           Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh

Iron                                                                            Goa, MP, Jharkhand, Orissa, Andhra, TN

Lead                                                                           Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh

Lignite                                                                       TN, Gujrat

Manganese                                                              Orissa, MP, Karnataka, Maharashtra

Nickel                                                                          Orissa

Natural Gas                                                              Assam, Gujrat, Maharashtra, Orissa, TN

Petroleum                                                                Assam, Gujrat

Silver                                                                          Rajasthan, Bihar, Karnataka

Tin                                                                              Bihar

Tangsten                                                                   Rajasthan, Bengal

Uranium                                                                   Kerala, Bihar, Rajasthan

Zinc                                                                            Rajasthan


Mineral                                                         Producing State

Asbestos                                                       Andhra Pradesh, Bihar

Ballclay                                                          Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan

Barytes                                                          Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra

Calcito                                                           Rajasthan, Gujrat

China clay                                                     Rajasthan, Bengal

Corundum                                                    Karanataka, Maharashtra

Diamond                                                       MP, Orissa

Dolomite                                                       MP, Orissa

Felsper                                                           Rajasthan, TN

Fire clay                                                        Bihar, Gujrat

Flourite                                                         Gujrat, Rajasthan

Graphite                                                       Orissa, Rajasthan

Gypsum                                                        Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh

Kyamte                                                          Bihar, Maharashtra

Limestone                                                     MP, TN

Magnetite                                                     TN, UP

Marble                                                            Rajasthan

Mica                                                               Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh

Ochre                                                             Rajasthan, MP

Pyrites                                                            Bihar

Sulphur                                                         TN Quartz Andhra Pradesh

Quantzites                                                    Orissa, Bihar

Silica sand                                                     UP, Gujrat

Sillimanite                                                     Maharashtra, Meghalaya


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