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Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Earthquake (October 8, 2005)” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Earthquake (October 8, 2005)

 

An Earthquake measuring at least 7.6 on richtar scale caused massive devastation on October 8, 2005 Saturday across Pakistan, India and Afghanistan killing at least 50,000 people.

Epicentre of Quake—The quake struck directly on the dividing line between Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) triggering landslides which wiped several villages.

Intensity of Quake—The US Geological Survey and Pakistan Meteorological Department said that the quake measured 7.6 on the Richtar Scale while the Japanese Meteorological Agency put the temblor even higher at 7.8. The epicenter was around hundred kilometer northeast of Islamabad, although the Earth Science observations in Strasbourg said it was just inside Jammu and Kashmir.

At least 1500 people and 70 army personnel were killed and thousand injured in the massive earthquake that rocked Jammu and Kashmir and parts of North India on October 8, 2005.

Causes of Quake on Oct 8, 2005—New Mega fractures developing across the Himalayan region were responsible for the earthquake that rocked Pakistan and North India according Geological Survey of India.

According to PC Nawal director of GSI the quake was caused due to adjustment in the earth’s crusts resulting from those fractures.

According to Geologists the scismicity in the Himalaya was shifting from north to the south and areas south of the Himalayan ranges are now more vulnerable.

As a result foothills of the Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic areas were developing into quake prone zones.

Earlier when Indian plate was colliding with the Tibetan plate, regions north of Himalayan were more susceptible. Among areas near Uttranchal seismicity had shifted to places like the Doon Valley and Haridwar.

What are Mega Fractures ? Mega fractures are energy release points leading to displacement which causes an earthquake.

There are several mega fractures in the Himalayas which release en-ergy from the earth’s crust and cause earthquake. Beware, new fractures are developing in the Northwest to Southwest direction.

The earthquake that shook Jammu & Kashmir on October 8, 2005 was severest in the state over 120 years.

In the past an earthquake of 7.0 magnitude was felt in the valley with its epicentre in Sopore in Baramulla of North Kashmir in 1880.

Although Jammu and Kashmir had witnessed more severe earthquake in the past as well but October 8, 2005 quake was the severest.

October 8, 2005 earthquake had the magnitude of 7.4 on the Richtar Scale and the epicentre was at a place near Muzaffarabad in Pak occupied Kashmir at a latitude 30°6 degree north and logtitude 73.0 degree east.

Lesson–It was 9.20 a.m. in Uri town when the earthquake struck the population. The very same earthquake could have struck in or around a large metropolitan city like Delhi. The capital boast of the best urban infrastructure in the country. However more than 80% of its houses do not conform to standard norms putting millions of people at high risk. Delhi and its surrounding region encompassing the entire Indo-Gangetic plain are home to one of the highest population density of the world. They lie adjacent to the youngest mountain of the world—the Himalayas. These mountains are constantly growing and in the process accumulating lethal energy that leads to devastating earthquake.

Most of us feel helpless against nature’s wrath or government inaction. However disregard for basic precautions leads to unnecessary risk to our lives.

In many disasters children are the worst sufferers. In the tsunami more than 100000 children died. In Kashmir’s quake one whole generation lost across communities both in rural and urban areas. Schools are always the centre of our attention. A safe school would protect children and send the right message to their parents. In highly earthquake prone regions periodic drills are an absolute must.

Moreover schools are also identified as sites for temporary shelters for survivors in disastrous situations. Schools should be built to highest level of safety-standards. If they have to serve their  important role of protecting humanity’s future.

We have to look beyond what we can do during an earthquake . People in Japan always maintain a small pack just near the entrance of their homes as a measure of preparedness. This family pack contains among other things medicines and list of phone numbers of close family relatives studying in other towns, some dry food items, torches, batteries, whistles and a transistor radio etc. Each of us who tried to run out of our homes during last week’s earthquake may realise how useful it could have been to have this pack handy.

In 1999 earthquake in Tokyo more than 50% of the injuries were due to things falling within building. Recently a study carried out by Morgan Lab in University of Tokyo pointed out that many of the 6000 deaths that occurred in 1995 Kobe (Japan) earthquake were due to people getting knocked unconscious in their homes by things falling on them before their houses came crashing down.

So we can say that a beautiful painting in a glass frame, a fancy chandelier in our room or even a heavy book rack can become a lethal weapon potentially injuring people or blocking exit in earthquake. Besides earthquakes do not happen in a particular time we could be in our work place-offices, factories or shops and such falling hazards are all around us.

As our family expand so does our need for space be it extending our balcony or using our terrace to construct an additional room. Making additions or modifications to existing building structure actually increase their vulnerability. It is like planting a virus in our computer which can lead to a fatal crash without a warning. Additions or modifications to existing structures cause significant changes in structural load conditions.

Most building collapses that have taken place during non-earthquake times are either due to new additions in the original design or due to ageing of building. Ironically most people who blame for poor workmanship in the house they buy always for cheaper deals. They would rather invest in an Italian marble for the flooring to look good but would not like to look in quality of iron rods that go as reinforcement and get hidden in concrete. They would like the cheapest labourer but would not care if he really knows his work. In a simple demand and supply situation if we ask for safe buildings we will get them. Knowledge exists but we seldom practise it.

Our biggest challenge is to change people’s mindset. People refuse to acknowledge that disasters can affect their lives until it really happens to them. The Jammu & Kashmir earthquake shook all of us. We know we are sitting on earth quake zones. Do we need any more wake up calls ?

Indian Plate Seismically Active—After monitoring of faults under the Himalayas it was known that the Indian plate boundary has become seismically active.

The wave of strong earthquake since the Sumatrian quake in December 2004 that triggered tsunami suggests that India plate has become seismically very active and needs constant watching. The Indian plate is one of the 14 major plates that are locked on to the surface of the earth like the jigsaw puzzle.

The 9.3 magnitude Sumatra quake in 2005 followed within three months by an 8.6 magnitude quake near the same plate and now this one in Pakistan. This suggests that the Indian plate boundary has become very highly active.

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