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Essay on “Status of Human rights in Independent India” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Status of Human rights in Independent India


POINTS TO DEVELOP 1. A nation is free if the individuals composing it are free.

2.The concept of human rights is very old, though the term was coined in more recent times in international covenants and charters.

  1. Introduction of western education in British India made Indians familiar with values such as liberty and human rights.
  2. There is provision for human rights in the Indian Constitution in the form of fundamental rights.

5.Enforcement of these rights has brought improvement in some areas, especially civil liberties.

  1. Several socio-economic inequalities, however, still exist.

7.Some human rights are violated by state machinery itself.

8.However, a positive sign is that there is increase awareness about human rights.

  1. India is much better placed, as compared to other third world countries.

10.Freedom form fear throughout the world should be the ultimate goal.


           Like all other values, freedom is essentially an individual value. A society of a nation has no consciousness and who either suffers from bondage or exults in freedom. A society or a nation can be said to be free to the extent to which the individuals composing it are free.

          The expression ‘human rights’ as a term of art is of recent origin. Human ,the idea of the law or the lawgiver, defining  and protecting the legal rights of men, mainly the mutual rights of the members of the community, is very old. We find elements of the protection of human rights in the code of the Babylonian king, Hammurabi (about 2130  to 2088 BC). The petition of rights of 1620 and the Bill of Rights of 1689. The passages of the American Declaration of Independence, the Virginia Bill of Rights of 1776, the French Declaration of  the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, are the foundations of all human rights and democratic freedoms in the modern world. Indian became families with the watchwords of American and French revolution and modern Western values with the introduction of English education and British system of administration and jurisprudence, based on rule of law, which in itself is a basic human right. The Indians got themselves acquainted with sciences and modern knowledge and the ideas about human freedoms and began to question not only colonial rule but also the harmful customs and institution s of foreign rule.

          We got freedom. We framed out own Constitution and system of administration. Most  of the human rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are incorporated in Part III of the Constitution of India. This part on fundamental rights declares that all laws inconsistent with them are void and these fundamental rights are enforceable in courts of law. Some important rights of India citizens are-right to equality (Articles 14-18), right to freedom (Articles 19-22), right against exploitation (Articles 23-24) , right to freedom of religion (Article 25-28) , cultural and educational rights, protecting the interests of minorities (Article 29-30), Our Constitution incorporates a vast range of political, social, economic, cultural and religious rights of citizens. For ensuring the rights of all citizens, our Constitution allows for some special provisions for steward classes of society through the policy of reservations offence. Primary education is free and secondary and higher education is subsidized and is being made progressively free. Physical and mental health is recognized as on of the social rights. India has recoginsed that human rights and democracy are inseparable and we cannot secure on without the other.  

          Over fifty years have passed since we attained independence. What is the real status of human right in post independent India?

          In the region of civil liberties, some tangible improvements have been brought about. The judiciary , free press and voluntary non-government organization have succeeded to a considerable extant in protecting and promoting the fundamental right (civil liberties) of the people. The brother interpretation given by the Supreme Court of Article 14(equality before law) and Article 21 (liberty of the person and of the life of individuals) and the system of public interest litigation have succeeded to a noticeable extent in establishing the rule of law and checking the arbitrary behavior of politicians and public authorities. The role the judiciary in the protection and promotion and promotion of civil liberties and human right s impressive. Notable achievements have been made in science and technology, economic development , attainment of self-sufficiency in food, and improvements in health parameters- all leading to better human conditions. Efforts have also been made through the land reform movement and various developmental programmers to enable the weaker sections of society get possession of land. Labour legislation  has been passed to ensure fair wages and healthy conditions of work to the working class.     

          However, the contradictions of the socio-economic order in our society have  remained almost the same even after more than five decades of independence. Half a century is a considerable period of time in the history of a society to correct its mistakes and imbalances, but unfortunately in  India neither the society nor the state has been able to resolve the contradictions. The socio-political scenario is marked by a sharp escalation in human rights violations by dominant groups. Despite the constitutional commitment of the state towards achieving the goal of  equality, liberty and justice, the age-old structure of inequality has not been dismantled The ideas of grassroots social democracy and distributive justice remain elusive. A considerable proportion of the Indian population is subjected to multiple deprivations.

          The fruits of development have not been shared equitably. Poverty still remains a formidable challenge. Along with this, the basic amenities of life like health, education and drinking water are not available to one and all. Child labour and bonded labour exist in many areas, despite laws having been passed to prevent them. Women do not enjoy equal rights with men. There are many instances of violation of human rights of dalits, tribal’s, and ethnic and religious minorities. The right to information is a right only on paper. Legislation is also necessary for protecting the right to privacy.   

          Moreover, there are instances of violation of human rights by the state machinery itself. This was conspicuous during the emergency period. There are many instances of police torture during investigation into offences, sometimes resulting in custodial deaths. The Terrorism and Disruptive Activities(Prevention) Act (TADA) was misused. In many cases. TADA was used against the members of the weaker sections of the society.

          At present, the movement for human rights has been overshadowed by a dismal political scenario characterized by an all- pervading corruption in the political and administrative apparatus of the country, criminalization of politics and the inability of political parties to form a stable government. Due to criminalization of politics, several sections are unable to use their right to vote or to vote freely.

          A positive feature is that the citizens of the country are becoming conscious of their rights and are demanding an end to all kind of exploitation. The role of the Indian judiciary in the protection and promotion of civil liberties and human rights is impressive and inspiring. A large number of human rights organizations have come up. Young  men and women inspired by the spirit of human freedom are working in these organizations at grassroots level among the deprived and exploited sections of the people , such as the tribal’s, delist, women and landless laboutrers , to make them fearlessly fight for their rights. There has been an increased concern for protection of environment, itself a valuable human right. The National Commission for Human Rights has been set up to document, assess and act on human rights violations in the country.

          In the end, we can say that despite some cases of violation of human rights, India continues to be a democratic and open society. “Freedom from fear could be said to sum up the whole philosophy of human rights”- these were the memorable words of the first secretary-general of the United Nations on the Nations on Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The world today is one globe village. It is for the people of India to join hands with the people of the world in the global task of freeing all people from any sense of fear and of defending and promoting human rights and democracy that go together.


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