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Essay on “Problem of Unemployment” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Problem of Unemployment


The Challenge of Unemployment


Essay No. 01

                “From each according to his capacity

                To each according to his need.”


                The above two lines sum up the economic needs of any ideal welfare state.  Every man of woman must be given work to his/her capacity and the state must satisfy its people’s basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.  If a state fails to provide jobs to its people or ensure the satisfaction of their basic needs, it is sure to be doomed one day. Every eating mouth is blessed by God with two working hands. Therefore, no excuse can explain in failure of this balancing system of production and consumption.

                The most challenging problem India faces today is the problem of unemployment.  With the massive increase in population, the number of the unemployed has increased manifold.  No wonder, we find millions of educated the uneducated unemployed youth in the country.  It is a pity that many of the uneducated unemployed youth are skilled workers.  The conditions of the educated unemployed is more pitiable.  Unemployment is one of the major causes of student unrest in the country.  No country can make any progress when her youth remain idle and unemployed.  It is rightly said,” An idle brain is a devil’s workshop.”

                The hordes of unemployed youth wander from pillar to post in search of jobs.  There are fewer jobs but more job-seekers.  We come across many teacher, engineers and even doctors who go without jobs.  They have spent several years in degree and professional colleges and yet they are unable to get jobs. The condition of those who have passed B.A. and M.A. examinations is even worse.  They are not fit for doing any job other than the white-collar ones.  This is quite an unhappy situation.  In these days of high cost of living, unemployment is a matter of great concern for the planners.

                The problem in respect of the non-availability of jobs is likely to become worse with the introduction of computers in the offices, factories, shops, banks and the commercial establishments.  With the coming of automation in factories many skilled workers in various fields will have to look for jobs elsewhere.

                The entry of multinational companies might also make things a little too tough for the small industrial units that may have to be closed.  The situation is, therefore, likely to become worse in years to come. 

                There are two kinds of measures that are being tried to cope with the situation.  These are long-term measures and short-term measures.  Long term measures include reform in education, control over population and increase in production.  Job-oriented courses are being introduced in schools and colleges in a big way.  Short-term measures include creation of more jobs by proper economic planning and improving fiscal policy.  Self-employment schemes started by the government have not yet yielded much response.  The government is keen to solve the problem.  The problem, is no doubt, big.  But it must be solved otherwise the writing on the wall is very much clear.

                Liberal loans should be given to those who want to run small scale industry.  Cottage industry in India has a better scope for generating employment.  Agro-industry should be given encouragement as about 70% people live in villages.  Subsidy and interest free loans should be given to those who want to run small scale industry.  Technical know-how should be made available to the people engaged in cottage and small scale industry.  More and more young men and women should be encouraged to take up technical work.  Job-oriented or vocational education is the only remedy.  Let us hope that the youth of the country are given proper opportunities to work according to their worth.


Essay No. 02


The Problem of Unemployment


The problem of unemployment being faced by India is a very serious one. This is not confined to India alone, but here it has been chronic and with many dimensions. India has a vast manpower but it has not been properly harnessed because lack of employment opportunities for millions of young men and women. The job opportunities being created have not kept pace with the ever increasing number of jobseekers. The number of unemployed people registered with the various employment exchanges in the country just give us a rough idea of the problem because all the unemployed persons do not get themselves registered with the employment exchanges. There is also the problem of under-employment. The rapid increase in the number of job seekers is really alarming and must. be faced boldly and resolutely so as to solve it to the maximum extent possible. The problem is a great challenge to our leaders, thinkers, educationists, planners and industrialists.

There are many deep causes at the root of this chronic problem of unemployment. Some of these major causes have been identified as population explosion, a faulty and outdated education system, which is not job-oriented, neglect of village and cottage industries and defective long- and short-term planning. There are many other factors which have contributed in worsening the problem, but they are not as major as the above ones.

The problem of unemployment has given birth too many other serious problems like unrest, indiscipline, frustration, lawlessness, extremist activities, etc. An unemployed youth is a frustrated person and naturally he will not allow others to live in peace and happiness. Frustration is very dangerous thing. Therefore, it is imperative that young men and women get suitable employment opportunities and their energies are harnessed for fruitful and nation-building activities. If this problem is solved many other problems would be solved automatically.

Our education system should be changed according to our present needs. Our colleges and universities are still producing, on a mass scale, a rich crop of graduates fit only for white jobs like those of clerks, assistants and officers sitting at tables in the offices. Now we are a free and democratic country, and as such, we need are doctors, nurses, engineers, scientists, technicians, skilled labourers, craftsmen, teachers, farmers, etc. and not clerks and assistants. As a result the unemployment is much more widespread among arts graduates than in science, commerce and agricultural graduates. Education should be such as teaches a person to stand on his own feet instead of depending on government for a job. It should teach a student the dignity of labour so as to enable him to start his own factory, workshop or business. The prevailing education system started by the Britishers long ago, has lost its relevance and so should be suitably changed. Indiscriminate and unplanned admission in institutions of graduate and post-graduate studies should be checked.

Our educational and manpower planning has miserably failed because of miscalculations and not proper long-term view of the problem. Because of defective planning there are jobs for which we have not sufficient number of proper hands and on the other hand, there are thousands and thousands of hands for which there are no suitable jobs. Our manpower planning should be based on facts, figures and proper analyses of type and extent of unemployment existing in the country. This has resulted in dangerous gaps and holes in our planning. Because of lack of proper manpower planning often the graduates of various disciplines are forced to settle down for the jobs quite different to their training and education.

The rapid growth in our population is another major cause of the problem. Every minute there is addition of 40 or more people to our already unmanageable population. The creation of jobs and employment opportunities have not been keeping pace with our rapidly increasing population. In other words the rate of our economic growth is not adequate to meet our employment requirements. There should be check on the growth of population by means of family planning, and at the same time, our industrial and economical resources should be better employed and managed. There should be maximum utilization of our industrial capacity. Our rural, small and cottage industries should be exploited to the maximum. This sector can give jobs to millions of our rural population. To solve the rural unemployment a massive programme of orientation in rural investment should be launched. This will help to solve the problem of agricultural seasonal unemployment. Most of our farmers and farm-labourers are idle for a greater part of the year when it is not sowing and harvesting season. Government has introduced certain educational measures to make it job-oriented. But these must be accelerated and intensified. It is good that at secondary and higher secondary stages some sort of job experience is being given to the students. It would help the students to have some trade of craft to be adopted later as occupation. More and more self-employment opportunities should be created and encouraged. Banks should be instructed to give loans to trained and educated young men and women to set up their own factories, workshops, cottage and small. industries and enterprises.

To solve the problem of unemployment more technical institutions like ITIs, polytechnics, engineering colleges, etc., should be opened in towns and cities. There should be better and more arrangements for part time training in various trades and crafts so that the people may update and increase their qualifications in their respective fields of working.

Recently there has been much talk to make ‘right to work’ as one of the fundamental rights, but nothing concrete has been done in this direction. Until this is possible at least unemployment pension should, be introduced and people registered as unemployed for more than six months should be covered under this scheme. Our planning should be such as to increase the quantum of employment for both rural and urban unemployed. With the increase in employment opportunities, it should also be assured there is fairness in recruitment, and merit is recognizes, above all other consideration. Corruption should also be removed from employment exchanges in our country.

The condition of employment in near future can be improved considerably if sincere efforts are made on war footing and the above mentioned factors which are at the root of unemployment are checked and controlled. Lack of sufficient and proper vocational guidance facilities also aggravate the already worse unemployment problem. Therefore, proper attention should be given in this direction as well.


Essay No. 03



The Problem of Unemployment in India


Unemployment has become a chronic feature of modern societies everywhere. It has become very acute in our own country. It is a serious problem, demanding wise leadership to solve it. It will have to be faced quickly and wisely if we wish to avoid a social revolution. The world is getting smaller on account of scientific discoveries, which conquered space. But the world has also become very big because of the phenomenal growth of population. When people multiply, there is bound to arise the problem of unemployment. Jobs and services in a given community remain relatively static, whereas the growth of population goes on unchecked.

There are many types of unemployment and of the most troublesome aspect is the problem of unemployment of the educated. It is this problem, which is often meant when we discuss the question of unemployment. Since the number of the educated is annually increasing, we are not able to afford avenues of work for this growing number. So it has become a very ticklish problem, in a sense. The point is that we assume that education is good and desirable, and this is really so. There cannot be two opinions on this point. But the irony of it is that when we offer education to many thousands of young people, we are not in a position to offer jobs to even a few hundreds of them.

There are three main causer of unemployment. As stated above, the first and foremost cause of unemployment is ova. population. During 1981-91, Indian population increased by about 16 crore. Secondly, the system of our education is also literary sad theoretical so that it does not make our young men fit for anything except some kind of service. Thirdly, though our population has. been increasing, industrial progress and production of national wealth have not kept pace with it. To these may be added the indifference of society and State towards the unemployment.

The causes contain in themselves the solution of the problem of unemployment. India’s population has to be checked by every possible means, educational system overhauled and society reconstructed. The most important factor is the rapid large-scale industrialisation of the country. It is only when there is great industrial production that the people have increased avenues for employment.

It is gratifying to note that, of late the Government of India have become fully alive to the need of solving unemployment problem. A major objective of the Ninth Plan is to generate new employment opportunities of the order of 10 million jobs per year. Let us hope that this target of employment will be achieved. Let us hope that we shall evolve such a system of training that every grown up individual will become a socially useful and creative member, thereby saving the country from the danger of revolution and social upheavals.


Essay No. 04


Unemployment Problem

The problem of unemployment is a harsh, worldwide reality. Even developed countries like the U.S., England, France, is more pronounced in India. With the passage of time it has become worse. It has become a threat to India’s economic well-being and social development. It is one of the major causes of our poverty, backwardness, crimes and frustration among the people. India is the second largest country after China in terms of population and manpower. But because of large scale unemployment, this manpower is not being utilized. There are capable and willing hands but there is no suitable employment for them and they are force to remain idle.

The ever increasing number of job-seekers on the live registers of employment exchanges shows how alarming and serious this problem has become in recent years. But this only gives a rough idea of the problem because of all the job-seekers and unemployed persons do not get themselves registered with the employment exchanges.Moreover, there are no employment exchanges in the villages and rural areas of the country.

There are millions of young men and women waiting for job opportunities. This chronic problem of unemployment is not confined to any particular class, segment or society. There is massive unemployment among educated, well-trained and skilled people and it is also there among semi-skilled and unskilled labourers, small and marginal farmers and workers. Then there is under-employment. The jobs being created have miserably failed to keep pace with the ever increasing number of job-seekers. It is a problem which presents a great challenge to our leaders, thinkers, planners, economists, industrialists and educationists.

In the far flung areas, villages and towns, the problem is all the more acute, as there are thousands and thousands of workers and farm labourers who do not have their own piece of land to cultivate. Majority of our farmers too, have very small holdings. Consequently, they remain idle for many months of the year. This has resulted in a mass exodus from villages to the cities and large towns. It is because of this limitless unemployment that the majority of our population has been living below the poverty line. The problem of unemployment has also given rise to many other serious problems, like those of extremism and terrorism. We should not forget that an idle mind is the devil’s workshop. Many a young man takes recourse to lawlessness, violence, anti-social activities, terrorism and extremism because of frustration arising out of prolonged unemployment and lack of proper job opportunities.

A frustrated and unemployed man or woman can prove a very dangerous person. He or she will never allow others to live in peace. Many of our law and order problems are directly linked with this problem of unemployment among our young men and women. They are full of energy, drive, and initiative. If not properly oriented, these are bound to explode into harmful and anti-social activities. Therefore, it is the need of the hour that the youth is suitably employed and its energies, capabilities and skills are harnessed for fruitful and nation-building activities. If this problem is solved, many other problems would be solved automatically. For a democratic country and a welfare state like ours, unemployment is a big curse, which can be eliminated to a great extent by proper manpower planning and creation of job opportunities on a large scale. If the rise of our manpower cannot be reduced, it becomes imperative that the demand for it is sufficiently increased by proper short and long term planning, both in public and private sectors.

There are many reasons that are too obvious to be ignored, as far as this problem is concerned. The rapidly increasing population, defective education system, slow growth of industries, neglect of cottage industries, and backwardness of our agriculture, etc. are some of the major causes of the problem. Defective long and short term manpower planning is another factor helping this problem to have a new dimension. There are a few other factors, which have contributed in worsening the situation, but they are not as major as the ones mentioned above.

Our education system should be reviewed and changed according to our present needs. Like factories, our universities, colleges and schools are still producing a rich crop of graduates who are fit only for white collar jobs in the offices. These graduates are fit only for such jobs as those of clerks, assistants, officers and bureaucrats sitting at tables in the offices. These matriculates, graduates and post-graduates keep adding to the growing list of’ the unemployed. These educated but unemployed youths, numbering millions, are a source of great anxiety and concern. Our education should be work-oriented. It should be such that it enables a person to stand on his own feet instead of depending on others. It is really an irony that our highly educated and trained personnel, like engineers, doctors, and scientists, etc., run after government jobs. They are not willing to start their own workshops, laboratories, factories and businesses. Our educated young men and women, instead.of facing the challenges and creating suitable job opportunities through self-employment, are wasting themselves in the pursuit of routine and easy-to-perform government jobs. They depend too much on the government and lack the courage and inspiration to stand on their own feet. There should be greater emphasis on vocational education. There should be many more technical institutionsand training centres. Indiscriminate and unplanned admissions in colleges and universities should also be checked. Higher education should be reserved only for those who really deserve it.

It is really shocking that our Five Year Plans have consistently increased the number of unemployed persons. It is because our planners have failed in taking a proper, long-term view of the problem. Due to defective planning and poor manpower management, there are jobs for which we do not have sufficient number of proper hands, and on the other hand, there are thousands and thousands of hands, for whom there are no suitable jobs. This has given rise to brain-drain and flight of our talented people to other countries in search of greener pastures. Our manpower planning should be based on objective analysis, facts and figures and other relevant factors. Our wrong priorities, planning and policies have resulted in dangerous gaps and holes in our various employment schemes. Due of lack of proper manpower planning, graduates and post-graduates of various disciplines are forced to settle for jobs quite removed from their education, training and aptitude.

The rapid growth in our population is another major cause of this problem. Every minute there is an addition of 40 or more people to our already unmanageable population. Consequently, the creation of job opportunities has not kept pace with the rapidly increasing population. Besides unemployment among educated young men and women, it is there among uneducated labour too. Every year there is an increase of over 4 million people in the labour sector. Rural unemployment is increasing rapidly, resulting in a great pressure on the land cultivation and cottage industries.

The ever declining trend in village industry and handicrafts has further worsened the situation. The indiscriminate expansion of education facilities at college and higher levels of education is a sheer waste of national resources. Our education should be totally restructured and made work oriented. We need more of technical education than liberal education. Education should teach a person to stand on his own feet, instead of depending on the government for a job.

Our industries too have lagged behind, thereby aggravating the situation. We have invested heavily in public sector industries, which have low employment potential, neglecting small and village industries. Indiscriminate automation and computerisation have also contributed to the worsening situation. Any expansion in industries should be closely linked with the immediate needs of the community. Without keeping this in mind no manpower planning can be effective and successful. The emphasis should be on proper planning and utilisation of our vast manpower. It is imperative that we seek people’s solutions based on our ground realities instead of abstractions. There should be maximum utilisation of our industrial capacity but it should be based only on these principles.

Recently, there was much talk to make ‘right to work’ one of the fundamental rights, but nothing concrete has emerged so far. Moreover, it does not seem to be practical in a country like India with its vast population and dwindling natural resources.

To alleviate this problem of unemployment and under-employment in villages, a progressive employment scheme called Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was introduced in 1989. Over 440 lakh families living under the poverty line benefitted from it. More such schemes are needed to create gainful employment opportunities for scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and other backward classes and communities in the rural areas of the country. Only then will our efforts towards development and industralisation get the desired results.


Essay No. 05

Unemployment Problem

We can see millions of youth of our country roaming about in search of jobs. A large majority of them belongs to the educated class and the uneducated youth car outnumbers them. They are neither educated nor trained for any gainful employment. The employment exchanges register the names of thousands of youth everyday but to no purpose.

India is a welfare state and it is the duty of the Government to provide gainful employment to these people. But for any government it is an uphill task, as every year millions of educated and uneducated youth enter the employment market. Thus this acute problem needs a permanent solution.

We can see in other countries of the world where the governments give unemployment allowance to thousands of youth till they are absorbed against suitable vacancies. But the population of those countries is not as large as that of India.

Moreover, those countries have got a big employment market because the industries are in an expanding state there.

In India, the population problem is causing a great headache to the government. Every year hundreds of new schools are being opened. Moreover, the rural youth remain unemployed because their parents either don’t possess land or the land holdings do not yield enough for the new families to be supported with dependably. Furthermore, the spread of education in the rural areas is compelling the youth of countryside to migrate to the urban areas to find employment. Sometimes they feel a sort of inferiority complex in undertaking the profession of farming in the country side.

The urban youth can be absorbed in new industries or the youth may be helped to set up their own industrial units. Thus they can be gainfully employed. The rural youth also has got to be educated and trained. The biggest problem is that our educational system does not conform to the needs of the society.

Mahatma Gandhi said that every student should receive vocational training when he is at the school or college stage and just after leaving the institution, he should be able to follow that vocation. Thus the youth would become independent and the society will gain due to their contribution to the social welfare in general way.

Government at present is emphasizing upon the development of the rural economy. The government is seized by the problem facing the rural unemployed youth. Hereinafter, no industrial unit is to be set up in towns with more than 5 lakhs of population. Thus the new industries are likely to spring up in the rural areas soon with the help of the government. Different banks are opening their branches in the villages.

The government is trying to solve this problem of unemployment, on Gandhian principles. Moreover, there is a need of effecting land reforms. All the new families should be given a bigger piece of land, if they want to settle in the profession of Agriculture. The Government should give them all the facilities in farming their newly obtained pieces of land so that they may obtain good yield.

It is said that in the capitalist societies unemployment problem has assumed staggering proportions, but in the socialist societies there is no unemployment problem, as these countries pursue the system of planned economy.

The government should nationalize big industries and effect land reforms. Small industrial units should be set up and loans be given to the rural youth to undertake this job after receiving due training to run that industrial unit. There are Graduates Schemes and such other schemes of self-employment at work now under which the plan for self-employment may be rendered comparatively more practical and effective.

Strikes and lock-outs are causing a nuisance to Industries all over India at present. Strikes disrupt the smooth functioning in Banks and other offices. A feeling of dis-satisfaction is waving in the minds of the people. The people enjoy the right and freedom to raise their voice against social injustices. It is the basic duty of the government to look into the problem and find out some healthy solution. There should be some solid planning for providing avenues of employment for the educated youths.

The government should reform the system of education so as to make it more responsive to the social needs. This new educational system should have vocational bias. Let us study the system of Japan and other developed countries of the world and follow the guidelines to build our economy and provide employment to the youth. The educational system should be re-oriented in such a way that all the new educated youth should get employment just after leaving their institutions. If they have got vocational training, it would be easier to absorb them.

This problem needs to be solved with close attention of the government and new employment schemes to be taken up for the purpose.

Essay No. 06

Unemployment Problem

Today, India is facing many problems. One of them is the problem of unemployment. This problem is very grave. It is increasing very rapidly. The demon of unemployment is threatening our peace and prosperity.

Unemployment means lack of work for those persons who are willing to work and have necessary capability. Some people have compulsory leisure. There are two categories of unemployed persons—1. Uneducated persons and 2. Educated persons.

Unemployment among the educated people is increasing day by day. Besides unemployment, there is under-employment also. Under employment means insufficient employment. For example, a farmer is under-employed because he does not have work for the whole year.

There are many reasons responsible for unemployment. First, there is rapid increase in our population. Secondly, our cottage industries are nearly destroyed. Workers employed in cottage industries are out of jobs. Thirdly, the educational system is defective in India. It produces only clerks who hate manual labour. Fourthly, our government cannot give jobs to all educated persons.

Unemployment is also a source of discontentment among the youth. A qualified youth want to get higher salary right from the beginning.

It is necessary to take immediate effective steps. The outlook of young boys and girls is to be changed. For this purpose, the educational system should be changed completely. The students should be taught the importance of labour: They must know that manual labour has its own honour and dignity. They must be attracted to cottage industries.

Cottage and small scale industries should be encouraged. Loans Should–be -given to villagers on nominal interest to run cottage industries. Import of foreign Roods should be stopped. Unemployment among the educated persons should be reduced. Only intelligent students should be given chance for higher studies: For the rest there should be technical and vocational training. Such educated students will be easily absorbed in factories and industries.

The government has taken some steps to solve this problem. Technical and vocational education is being given in schools. Family planning is encouraged among the young men and women to control population. Multi-purpose projects are increasing rapidly. Cottage industries are being established in rural and urban areas. Employment exchanges have been established in the big cities.

The self-employment is one of the methods to reduce unemployment. An educated youth can get loan from a bank to start his own business. The govt. is conscious of the situation and is trying to find out a long term solution of the problem.


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  1. Zareen Sultana says:

    Sopisticate writtings

  2. Zareen Sultana says:

    Most sophisticated writtings

  3. Sahil Nehra says:

    Most sophisticated writing and beautiful thoughts are written in it •

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