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Essay on “Planning in India” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Planning in India

Planning is a must in every modern State. The days of laissez faire economy are over and the State cannot content itself with negative police functions only. It must guide and help the individual in every sphere of life. The demands of increasing population necessitate that available material resources are harnessed to the maximum extent to ensure a suitable standard of living for the masses. Of course, science has the means to provide comforts to an individual but the State alone has the resources to invest vast sum of money required for modern scientific research and for harnessing the gigantic forces of nature for human good.

Planning is all the more essential for India because of historical reasons. She has lagged behind in her march towards technological progress owing to foreign domination that did not allow the country to go ahead with industrialisation. So when India achieved independence, she could not afford to follow the method of trial error. She had to plan for her economy. The country has vast material resources, which had remained unutilised. It ‘has been estimated that we have some of the largest reserves of high-grade iron ore in the world. Of course, we have some shortage of coal, but with the help of modern technological progress in the use of semi-coking material, this could be met. Our manpower is plentiful. Thus, a coordinated and well-planned economic policy may put the country on the path of prosperity. So when we won our independence, we thought of embarking upon a planned phase of economic development.

In fact, India has already completed eight Five-Year Plans. The implementation of these plans has imparted a measure of strength and stability to our economy. It has introduced a new dynamic element in our static economy. During the five decades of planning, India’s per capita income has risen from Rs. 466 in 1950-51 to Rs. 9377 in 1996-97 at 1993-94 prices. The production of food grains has increased from 52.2 million tons in 1951-52 to 199.32 million tons in 1996-97.

Industrial development during the last five decades shows considerable progress in basic, capital and producer goods industries and India is now one of the 20 most industrialised countries of the world. The production of finished steel has increased to 27.38 million tones as compared to 1.4 million tons at the beginning of the First Plan. There has been considerable increase in the production of essential materials like coal, crude petroleum and fertilizers. Electricity generation has been increased to 289.40 billion kwh in 1996-97. Total area under irrigation has increased from 52 million hectares in 1950-51 to 76.25 million hectares in 1991-92.

Facilities for education, health and social welfare have considerably increased during the five decades of planned development. According to 1991 census, overall literacy has gone from 29 per cent in 1971 to 51.11 per cent in 1991; for females it is 39.42 per cent and for males 63.86 per cent. In the field of health, the number of hospitals and dispensaries has increased considerably. In the field of social progress, the Community Development Movement and Panchayati Raj has achieved a good measure of success.

Encouraged by the success of Eight Plans, the Government has now launched the Ninth Five-Year Plan. The plan, which covers the period 1997-2002, envisages an aggregate investment of Rs. 8,59,200 crore—Rs. 4,89,361 crore in the Central sector, Rs. 3,69,839 crore in States sector. The private sector investment is Rs. 5, 50,000 crore.

The objectives of the Ninth Plan are priority to agriculture and rural development with a view to generating adequate product of the employment and eradication of poverty, accelerating the growth rate of economy with stable prices; ensuring food and nutritional security for all, particularly the vulnerable sections of society; providing the basic services of safe drinking water, primary health-care facilities, universal primary education, shelter and connectivity to all in a time-bound manner is containing the growth of population, ensuring environmental sustainability of development process through social mobilisation and participation of people at all levels; empowerment of women and socially disadvantageous group such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes and Minorities as agents of social economic change and development, promoting and developing people’s participatory institutions like Panchayati Raj Institutions, cooperatives and self-help groups; and strengthens efforts to build self-reliance. The Plan aims at a growth rate of 6.5 per cent per annum of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This growth is to be achieved through 3.9 per cent growth rate in agriculture, 8.2 per cent in industry and 11.8 per cent in exports.

To achieve self-sustaining growth, a balanced development in agriculture and industry has been aimed at. Food production, at the end of the Plan, is expected to be increased to 234 million tones. The net area under irrigation is expected to increase to 91.50 million hectares. The power capacity is expected to be increased to 289.40 billion kwh. The production of finished steel is expected to be increased to 27.38 million tones. Also additional employment is likely to be created for 50 million persons.

In the field of social services, it is proposed to provide facilities for 100 per cent literacy among the people of age-group 15 to 35 years in all the States. The Ninth Plan also aims at universal primary education, both through full-time formal schools and part-time non-formal arrangement for working children and girls in particular. In the plan, a sum of Rs. 15,120 crore has been provided for the Family Welfare.

India has taken upon herself one the of biggest challenges of modern times, namely, socialisation through peaceful and non-violent methods. The aim set forth in the plan is to overcome huger and unemployment by a process of bold and not by following totalitarian or regimented methods. The success of democracy in India depends upon the successful working of these development plans.


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  1. xxx says:

    thank you this helped me in my studies

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