Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Essay on “Democracy” Complete Essay, Paragraph, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay on “Democracy” Complete Essay, Paragraph, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.


Essay No. 01

Governance is an absolute necessity in society. It ensures order and stability without which the people cannot live peacefully. Human societies from the very beginning recognized the importance of such order, and have been practicing one form of control or another over themselves. After several trials and refinements, modern societies have chosen a style of government based on equality, cooperation and, individual rights and responsibilities.

But this style of governance, popularly called democracy, is not a recent phenomenon. It was practiced quite efficiently and effectively in Greece in a bygone era. Philosophers like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, who contributed greatly to the development of democracy, made its practice more nearly ideal during their time. In the democracy of that era, citizens participated directly in the process of governance. They aired their views or criticized those of others; they picked their choices and took decisions they thought were most suitable for them. The practice ensured that it was a civilized form of government. The system was also successful because all the citizens, as they had the right to express their opinion, behaved with a sense of responsibility and commitment, which made them contribute sincerely to the development of society. It is a tribute to the genius of the people of time that the system survived successfully for several years.

Democracy, which lapsed into hibernation with the decline of Greece, would enjoy a revival in the twentieth century. But in its revived version, democracy changed, or had to change, much of its original characteristics. Heavily populated modern societies make its participatory nature of functioning impracticable. It is no longer possible to let every citizen have a say in government. Modern democracy has therefore been modified to function indirectly. Rather than in direct governance, people’s responsibility is in electing representatives, who are assigned the right to govern.

Though its system of functioning has changed, modern democracy also bases itself on the ideals of equality, cooperation and solidarity. The elected representatives, who have the power to rule, are not supposed to use their powers as they wish. They are responsible to the people who elect them and should function within the provisions of the law. Their performances and achievements should match the hopes and expectations of the people who elect them.

Another feature is that, modern democracy is based on the competition among organized political groups, rather than among individuals. The parties that the majority of the people favor, enjoy the right to rule. In other words, modern democracy is the rule by the majority. However, the minority, which is usually called the opposition, has the right to criticize the performance of the government. They contribute to the necessary balance or equilibrium in the governance of a country.

Since decisions of government can be taken only after due debate and discussion of their merits, the opposition’s right to criticize will come in handy to ensure that such decisions are for the benefit of the whole society. Moreover, the opposition’s right to question actions and to seek clarifications will make governance more accountable. These aspects of democracy, along with administration structures that prevent concentration of power in a particular individual or group, make it perhaps the best of all governing styles. Features like openness in decision-taking and accountability for actions, serve as effective “checks and balances”, necessary for the equitable and efficient use of power.

The civilized manner in which democracy operates, sets it apart from other forms of governance, like dictatorship or monarchy. Violence and discrimination that characterize such forms of government have no place in a democracy.

Since it is a collective, combined exercise, democracy can be the most representative form of government imaginable.

However, democracy is not all virtue and happiness. As personal freedom is practically unlimited, the chances of anarchy and instability are high in democracies. Owing to its onus on debate and discussion, policy-making and decision-taking processes in a democracy may be too slow to help it progress substantially. But if the people, who form part of a democracy, are wise, efficient and responsible. none of the above problems will be too serious to defy solution. In a government by the people (which democracy indeed is), it is the quality and caliber of the people that will determine the performance of their governments.

Essay No. 02


Democracy is a form of government in which people are governed t by their own elected representatives. It is a government of the people, for the people and by the people. In this system of government, it is the people who are supreme power. They control the government.

Democracy entered its golden stage in the twentieth century. Many countries in the world today follow the democratic form of government. Democracy depends on the following conditions: (i) co-existence of ideas (ii) the right to free discussion; (iii) periodical elections. India is the largest democracy in the world. The constitution of India was enforced on 26 January, 1950. It ushered in the age of democracy.

India became a democratic republic with the spirit of justice, liberty and equality. The Directive Principles: of State Policy and the Fundamental Rights reflect democratic ideals. All citizens above the age of 18 irrespective of colour, caste, creed, religion, property or sex have the right to cast their vote. After an election, the majority or coalition forms the government and its leader becomes the Prime Minister of the country.

Political parties are the vehicles of ideas. Parties act as the bridge between social thought and political decision in democracy. The Indian political system is a multi-party system. However, gradually politics became a game of opportunity and corruption. Most political  parties are only interested in coming to power. Every party adopts different means to come to power.

Illiteracy is the main cause of inequality. The illiterate maces cannot I ” choose the right leaders. in India, about half the total population is 1 illiterate. Election is always a costly affair. The illiterate masses get, easily lured by money. Some of our legislators have criminal records against them.

But India, as a democratic country, has progressed in many aspects. It has achieved self-sufficiency in food grains as a result of the green revolution. People vote for change whenever a government fails to come up to the expectations of the people. India has been successful democratic countries only because the people are law-abiding, self-disciplined and have the sense of social and moral responsibilities.

The politicians should also respect the true spirit of democracy. The citizens should elect leaders with good moral values and integrity. People should be guided to choose their representatives. They should not be influenced by anyone in this respect. Indians should not allow communalism, separatism, casteism, terrorism, etc. to raise their heads. These are a threat to democracy.


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