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Essay on “Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T)” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T)

 When the C.T.B.T. negotiations began in 1994, India entertained the hope that the treaty would be directed towards the elimination of nuclear weapons in time – bound manner. But , during the negotiations, India realized that the nuclear weapons states (NWS) were not interested in nuclear disarmament. Therefore, when the C.T.B.T. negotiations ended in 1996, India became its firm opponent, as it was found that the treaty was neither “comprehensive” nor did it favour a “test ban.” It banned only nuclear explosions, but allowed other hi-tech forms of testing. It has allowed non- explosive sub- critical tests, which gave the NWS the right to continue tests and build their nuclear arsenals further.

It became increasingly clear that the whole C.T.B.T. exercise was aimed at forcing India to take a sub- ordinate position. When the C.T.B.T. was finally adopted at the United Nations in 1996, India’s chief negotiator Arundhati Ghose stated categorically that India would “never sign this unequal treaty, not now nor later”. India rejected the C.T.B.T. on two basic ground :

  1. a) It is not a nuclear disarmament measure; and
  2. b) It is against India’s national security interests.

For the NWS, the C.T.B.T. became an instrument to consolidate their monopoly of nuclear weapons. Article IV deals with the verification regime of the C.T.B.T. which includes onsite inspections. The scope for misuse of this article is enormous. We should not forget what the U.N. inspection Team did in Iraq at the name of U.N.O. It would be difficult for week non- Nuclear Weapons States (NNWS) to preserve its sovereignty and freedom  after signing C.T.B.T. It is not good for national security to give any legal right to any outside inspection teams to come and force the nation. Self – reliance of India in the nuclear field will be naught if it signs the NPT of the C.T.B.T. as a non- nuclear weapon state.

The main issue is the formal recognition of India as a nuclear weapon state at par with other P-5 countries. The whole purpose of C.T.B.T. is to force India to roll back its nuclear weapons programme. C.T.B.T.  is a device of nuclear weapon states to deny the sight of non- nuclear weapon states like India to have nuclear weapons. Like NPT, the C.T.B.T. is also discriminatory.

For India, signing C.T.B.T. would mean the following. India would be legitimizing the  Chinese nuclear hegemony over the Indian sub- continent. It would mean signing away India’s right to defend against nuclear blackmail from across the borders. It would mean agreeing to India’s unilateral nuclear disarmament without ensuring the dismantling of nuclear weapons of China. It would mean India’s marginalization in world politics in future. It would mean placement of our scientific labs under the IAEA. It would mean acceptance of nuclear monopoly of the P-5 countries for all times to come.

India is a mature democracy, with civilian authority firmly in control of military and strategic operations. It can join the Russia and France seem to be inclined to accept and recognize India as NWS. Burt the U.S. and China are opposed to it. The U.S. Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright has stated publicly , “India and Pakistan must understand that their tests do not make them nuclear states.” The powerful has mastered the language of might. He will continue to safeguard their military superiority with better bombs. The C.T.B.T. is an integral part of U.S. policy intended to cripple the nuclear capacity of all countries except the Big Five. The U.S is expected to enjoy an advantage over Russia and China because of its technical prowess.

Once India signs any international instrument, it can only delay but not withhold ratification. Those bureaucrats who rushed India into CWC, are now helping Jaswant Singh to rush India into the C.T.B.T. No responsible leadership in India can oblige the United State in this regard without inviting the charge of the betrayal of the country.

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