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Essay on “Acid Rain” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay No. 01

Acid Rain


Great amount of pollution from cars, factories and an overabundance of garbage is overwhelming the modern society. The immense amounts of sulphur dioxide emitted into the air causes high levels of acid in the atmosphere. When this sulphuric acid is absorbed into moisture in the air, poignant rainfalls can be damaging to the external environment. Lakes, air and ecosystem the world over are being destroyed by acid rain. Acid rain is killing lakes and decreasing the number of inhabitants in these fresh water bodies.

Acid rain causes an ample deduction in the pH levels in the water. At a neutral level the pH in water should be close to seven, yet in these acidic water bodies the pH levels can be as low as four. These pH levels of four contain more than ten percent acids than that of normal rain and one thousand times more acid than neutral water. With each passing decade, the pH levels of lakes around untario have become ten times more acidic. The high acid levels contained in lakes also causes a decrease in the number of fish dwelling in these lakes. Also, acid produces chemical changes n the blood of the fish, and their basic body -metabolism is  altered, and can cause deformities in these Inhabitants. They have twisted and arched backbones, flattened and heads strangely curved tails.

 In pH levels of four there is little left in the lakes besides rock bass, pumpkinseed and lake herring. Affected fish are also in danger of becoming sterile, which would put the species at risk of becoming extinct. As with sulphur dioxide in rain, mercury is also discharged into the water. There is a direct connection between the mercury rich lakes as there is with those with high acidic levels. This metal becomes concentrated in the blood and tissues of fish. Acid rain causes traumatic effects in natural lakes and rivers. It also causes air quality to deteriorate. As in water, acid rain causes the pH levels in the air to decrease. The sulphur dioxide, which diffuses into the air, mixes with moisture causing the pH levels to drop from the normal level.

Again, the normal level is somewhere around seven, yet in some acidic air masses the levels can be as low as three. These lowered pH levels form a photochemical smog in the atmosphere.

In the air a nitrogen oxides react with ozone and some hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight to form photochemical smog, the kind of yellow-grey haze which it literally alive and growing in stagnant air masses. This smog carries serious risk for respiratory disease and crop damage. The photochemical smog is also causing the ozone layer to disintegrate. The ozone layer is becoming a part of this smog, which is causing holes in it. An inordinate amount of sulphur dioxide is let into the air, more than can be neutralized by nutrients in the air. Few effects of acid rain in air include decrease in pH levels, photochemical smog and depletion of the ozone layer. The ecosystem is slowly eroding due to the increased amounts of acid in the soil in causing the carbon dioxide respiration process to decelerate. In order for plants to go through photosynthesis, they need carbon dioxide. When acid in the soil causing this soil respiration to slow down, in turn it causes the photosynthesis process to slow down. The soil also erodes when the pH levels drop. The acidic levels of the soil cause its nutrients such as aluminum to break apart and the soil to erode. Sail erosion also causes a lower production of plants in the ecosystem. In the soil a process of decay A called oligotrophication, means that fewer of the ions of acid are neutralized by the depleted biological community so the acid can cause further degeneration of natural processes, which in turn are less capable of combating the acid, and so on, in an accelerating process. Another effect of acid rain is the disruption in the life span of trees and plants. The acid rain corrodes the thin, waxy layer, which coats and protects the leaves letting the acid suffocate the leaves. This can cause an interference in the plants metabolism and photosynthesis may be altered meaning the leaves cannot produce and efficient amount of food which may result in death of the plant. Acid may obtrude fertilization, stunt or kill the growth of seeds and make them sterile. A second generation would be in danger of not being produced causing deforestation. Naturally, the reduction of plants is causing the biological food chain to weaken. AS smaller animals and insects feed on these plants lose their  food supply, they may also ensue death. In effect the teals which feed off these animals also ensue a decrease in their supply. In turn humans may become starved if the acid rain effects increase. Acid rain causes death of soil, plants and animals, effecting the ecosystem. Acid rain is becoming a major problem in our environment today. It is killing our fresh water lakes and its occupants. Also the quality of air is depleting, increasing the amount of smog and pollution in our atmosphere. Once the acid is absorbed in the soil, this puts the ecosystem in jeopardy of extinction. This is killing plants, animal, and soil, which is the basis of our existence.

If this acid rain problem is not dealt with urgently, the natural world may be in hazard of demise.


Essay No. 02


Acid Rain

The rainfall, which has a pH level of less than 5.6, is termed as acid rain. This kind of rain is can cause extensive damage to the environment and property worldwide. It also leads to the corrosion of buildings and statues by reacting with several minerals. Formation of acid rain takes place when oxides of nitrogen and sulphite combine with water vapour in the atmosphere to form nitric and sulphuric acids. The two main sources of acid rain are sulphur dioxide (SO2), and oxides of nitrogen No and NO2. Sulphur dioxide is a colourless gas obtained as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing sulphur. Various industrial processes, such as the production of iron and steel and processing of crude oil produce this gas. Sulphur dioxide can also be emitted into the atmosphere by natural disasters or means like eruption of volcanoes. Overall, 69.4 per cent of sulphur dioxide is produced by industrial combustion. Only 3.7 per cent is caused by transportation.

Another chemical compound, which is mainly responsible for the acid rain is nitrogen oxide. Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are all oxides of nitrogen. These gases are obtained as by-products of ignition processes of extreme high temperatures (automobiles, utility plants), and in chemical industries (fertilizer production). Natural processes such as forest fires, volcanic eruption, and lightning make up five per cent of nitrogen oxide emission.

A disturbance in environment creates disturbance in the wildlife living in that environment. The lowering of pH from 7 to 4 is a drastic change in environment, and the changes in wildlife are a sign of it. Acid rain can affect the environment directly as well as indirect manner. Acid directly interferes with the ability of fish to inhale oxygen, salt, and other nutrients required to stay alive. Acidic conditions in the water cause mucus to form in the gills of fish, and inhibit them from absorbing oxygen from the surrounding waters. Apart from that acid rain can harm us through the atmosphere or through the soil from where we obtain food crops. Acid rain causes toxic metals to break loose from their natural chemical compounds, thus making harmless metals harmful. Besides that acid rain can cause respiratory problems in humans such as dry coughs, asthma, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation. It can also cause breathing problem such as asthma. Acid rain causes destruction to building and monuments. We must reduce the use of sulphur and nitrogen containing compounds. e.g. the use of fossil fuels. Adding suitable scrubbers to utility plants can reduce sulphur dioxide emission. Alternative power sources should be adopted like geothermal energy, solar power energy, wind energy, and water energy which are pollution less and thus not harmful.





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