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Essay, Biography or Paragraph on “Sankaracharya” complete biography for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.



Adi Sankaracharya was born in 507 B.C. in a Nambudri Brahmin family at Kalady, a village situated on the banks of the river Periyar in Kerala, in Suklapanchami of the month Baisakha. His father’s name was Sivaguru, a Sanskrit teacher and mother’s name was Aryamba, a pious woman. Soon after Sankara’s birth, his father died and he was brought up by his mother Aryamba. He had mastered the Vedic literature when he was only eight years. The study of the Vedas and the Upanishads influenced him deeply. Even in his early years, he made up his mind to become a Sannyasi.

There is a story: One morning when he and his mother were bathing in a river, a crocodile caught hold of Sankara’s leg, and thinking that death was imminent and he cried out in pain to his mother, asked for her permission to become a monk. Feeling helpless in the face of danger, his mother gave her consent. From that moment he left his house and became a wandering monk. But he assured his mother that he would be by her side in her last days.

Young Sankara came to the banks of the river Narmada where be met Govinda Bhagavatpada, a disciple of Goudapada, and from him he took Sannyas. He travelled throughout India on foot — from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari and from Dwarka to Kamaskhya in Assam. During his wanderings, he defeated the distinguished pundits of that time in “Shastra-Vichar” by his knowledge and wisdom and established the Advaita-Vedantism.

The first disciple of Sankara was Sanandana, whose devotion and service was unparalleled. One day when Sanandana was on the opposite bank of the river Alokananda, the Guru called him, the disciple proceeded towards him promptly walking on the surface of the water by chanting the Guru’s name. The amazement of the other disciples knew no bounds when they saw lotuses spring under his feet, as if to support him. This was a miracle of his Guru-Bhakti and he was from that day called Padmapada.

His writings are voluminous, including his commentaries on the Brahma-Sutras, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, Vivekchudamani, Upadesha-Sahasri, Sivanandalahari, Soundaryalahari, Vishnu Sahasranamamala etc.

Sankara stayed at Varanasi for five yours and then took to extensive journeys on foot for propagating the truths of vedanta philosophy. He visitod Kashmir, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Mount Kailas etc. in the interior Himalayas.

During his wanderings, Sankara had a premonition that his mother’s end was imminent. Remembering his promise to her. he went to Kalandi and was at her side at the time of her death. He established four Maths at different corners of India to propagate and uphold the Vedantic Sanatana Hindu Dharma through Sanskrit language throughout India. The four Matha Centres are distributed throughout India : in the Eastern region — at Jagannath Puri and is called the Govardhan Math; in the Northern at Jyotirdham (now known as Joshimath) in the Himalayas and known as Yotirmath; in the western at Dwaraka, known as Kalika Math and in the Southern at Sringeri (in the state of Karnataka) and known as Sarada Math. Besides these, he came to Kancheepuram at Madras (now Chennai) and established the Sivalingam there and is known as Kancheemath. The sannyasins of the order of Sankara are called Dasnamis because they are recognised by ten appellations of Teertha, Asrama, Vana, Aranya, Giri, Parvata, Sagara, Saraswati, Bharati and Puri.

When Sankara went to Kamrup (in Assam), he met a Tantric leader Abhinava Gupta and defeated him in sastriya arguments. In revenge, it is said, the followers of Abhinava Gupta undermined Sankara’s health by occult means and as a result, Sankara began to vomit blood. Padmapada nursed him and took him to Kedarnath, but Sankara had completed his mission for which he was sent to this earth.

He went to the Himalayas and disappeared for ever in 475 B.C. It is said that he was 32 years at that time.



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