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English Essay, Paragraph, Speech on “The Parliament of India” Complete Essay for Class 8, 9, 10 and 12 Students for Exam.

The Parliament of India

Parliament

Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India. The Indian Parliament comprises the President and the two Houses-Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha.

The Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950. The first general elections under the new Constitution were held during the year 1951-52 and the first elected Parliament came into being in April 1952, the Second Lok Sabha in April 1957, the Third Lok Sabha in April 1962, the Fourth Lok Sabha in March 1967, the Fifth Lok Sabha in March 1971, the Sixth Lok Sabha in March 1977, the Seventh Lok Sabha in January 1980, the Eighth Lok Sabha in December 1984, the Ninth Lok Sabha in December 1989, the Tenth Lok Sabha in June 1991, the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May 1996, the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March 1998, Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October 1999 Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May 2004 and Fifteenth Lok Sabha in April 2009,

 

Rajya Sabha

The origin of the Rajya Sabha can be traced back to 1919 when in pursuance of the Government of India Act 1919, a second chamber known as the Council of States was created. This Council of States, comprising of mostly nominated members was a deformed version of the second chamber without reflecting true federal features. The Council continued to function till India became independent. The Rajya Sabha, its Hindi nomenclature was adopted on 23 August 1954.

The Rajya Sabha is to consist of not more than 250 members – 238 members representing the States and Union Territories, and 12 members nominated by the President.

Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. However, one-third of the members retire every second year and are replaced by newly elected members. Each member is elected for a term of six years.

“The Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The House also elects a Deputy Chairman from among its members. Besides, there is also a panel of “Vice Chairmen” in the Rajya Sabha. The senior-most Minister, who is a member of Rajya Sabha, is appointed by the Prime Minister as Leader of the House.

 

Lok Sabha

Parliamentary institutions in India, with all their modern ramifications, owe their origin to India’s British connections. Until 1853, there was no legislative body distinct from the Executive. The Charter Act of 1853, for the first time, provided some sort of a legislature in the form of a 12 member Legislative Council. The Indian Independence Act, 1947 declared the Constituent Assembly of India to be a fully sovereign body. Apart from being a Constitution drafting body, it also assumed full powers for the governance of the country. With the coming into force of the Constitution on 26 January 1950, the Constituent Assembly functioned as the Provisional Parliament until the first Lok Sabha, then known as the House of People, and was constituted following General Elections in 1952. Lok Sabha, the Hindi nomenclature was adopted on 14 May 1954.

The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of Universal Adult Suffrage. The Constitution provides that the maximum strength of the House by 552 members – 530 members to represent the States. 20 members to represent the Union Territories, and 2 members to be nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian Community. At present, the strength of the House is 545 members.

The term of the Lok Sabha, unless dissolved, is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case, beyond a period of six months after the proclamation has ceased to operate.

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