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Essay on “Gandhian Outlook and Philosophy” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Gandhian Outlook and Philosophy

Mahatma  Gandhi  was  a  revolutionary  who  was  committed  to protest  and  eradicate  all  types  of  oppression.  He  was  influenced by  the  writings  of  Thoreau  and  Tolstoy  and  he  studied  many scriptures  including  the  Gita,  the  Ramayana  and  the  Upanishads. He  was  a  real  seeker  after  truth.  Distinctions  of  race, nationality and  sect  had  no  place  in  Gandhian  ethics.  He  attached  the highest  importance  to  both  ends  and  means  and  preached Satyagrah.  Although  Gandhiji  claimed  to  be  a  realist,  he  was  a great  idealist.  He  envisaged  the  ideal  of  world  .government  and favoured  simple  and  noble  living,  production  through  cottage and  small-scale  industries,  village  self-sufficiency,  manual  labour and  self-help.  He  was  no  individualist  but  an  advocate  in  the moral  and  spiritual  sense  of  the  term.  His  philosophy  should  be considered  in  the  context  of  the  conditions  prevailing  in  the country.

Mahatma  Gandhi  had  the  wisdom  Of  Socrates,  the  humility  of  St.  Francis, he  mass,  appeal  of  Lenin,  the  saintliness  of  the  ancient.  Indian  rishis  and the  profound  universal  love  of  Buddha.  He  was  a  revolutionary  who  wail committed  to  protest  and  eradicate  all  types  of  tyranny  and  sociar injustice  but  never  had  ill-will  towards  any  one,  who  led  a  mighty movement  against  British  imperialism  but  never  allowed  the  movement: to  be  accompanied  by  resentment,  rancour  or  hatred  against  Englishmen. Gandhiji  was  a  sincere  seeker  after  truth,  a  spiritual  explorer  or  a  scientist, experimenting  all  his  life  to  discover-  truth  and  apply  it  to  practical problems  confronting  man.  He  studied  the  Ramayana,  the  Bhagvata,  the Vaisfinava  poets  of  Gujarat  and  the  popular  writings  of  the  Jains.  During:, his  stay  in  England  he  studied  Buddhism  and  the  Gita,  met  Quakers missionaries,  read  the  Upanishads  in  translation,  Ruskins  Unto  this  Last, theosophist  literature  and  books  .on  Islam.  He  was  also  greatly  influenced by  the  writings  of  Thoreau  and  Tolstoy.

Gandhiji  never  passed  through  the valley  of  doubt  and  darkness  and remained  a   God-conscious  and  God-fearing  man  throughout his  life.  He a  firm  faith  in  God  and  his  scheme  of  life.  According  to  Gandhiji God  was  kind,  just  and  loving  and  always  responded  to  prayers  and love.  God  was  Truth  and  Love.  His  faith  in  God  was  never  shaken Gandhiji  believed  in  the  principle  of  Karma  and  in  punishment  for  the wrongs  done,  but  he  believed  that  man  was  fundamentally  a  free  agent and  that  man  himself  was  responsible  for  shaping  his  fortunes.

The  Gandhian  way  is  the  way  of  universal  love  and  tolerance,  of profound  reverence  for  all  great   religions  which  are  so  many  way  of apprehending  the  reality  and  identifying  ourselves  with.,  its  purpose. Distinctions  of  race,  nationality  and  sect  have  no  place  in  Gandhian ethics.  He  Was  an  admirer  of  all  religions:  Hinduism,  Buddhism,  Jainism, :Sikhism,  Islam,  Christianity  and  others.  He  disapproved  of  dogmatism, fanaticism,  intolerance,  selfishness.  Gandhiji  was  secularist  in  the  sense That  he  was  against  any  discrimination  between  citizen  and  citizen  on groiinds  of  religion,  sect  or  caste.

Gandhiji  never  agreed  that  means  were  justified  by  ends,  and  attached the highest  importance  to  both  ends  and  means.  He  pleaded  that  we must  refuse  to  meet  hatred  with  hatred,  violence  with  violence,  evil  with evil,  but  must  love  even  our  enemies,  for  in  reality  they  were  not  enemies. He  always  preached  Satyagrah truth-force,  non-violence,  universal  love. Man,  he  said,  was  a  spiritual  being.  Love  and  non-violence were part  of his  nature.  Force, hatred, vindictiveness were contrary  to  it.  Non-violence was  not  the  weapon  of  the  weak  and  the  timid  but  of  a  strong  man  who would  not  tolerate  any  manifestation  of  evil  or  injustice  or  tyranny  but would  resolutely  fight  it  and  willingly  suffer  the  consequence  of  rebellion. Gandhiji  was  a  great  revolutionary,  a  great-  rebel,  a  great  social  reformer, but  his  weapon  always  was  non-violence.  He  believed  that  violence  and hatred  brutalised  men,  love  ennobled  them  and  brought  out  the  best  in them.

Gandhiji  claimed  to  be  realist  but  he  was  a  great  idealist  whose  thinking was  always  on  the  highest  level.  He did not  think  that  Satyagrah  was beyond  mans  power.  It  was  said about him that  he  had  the power  of making  heroes out of  clay.  Man  has  tremendous  potentialities  which  can be brought  out  by  dynamic leadership,  by  training  and  education  by religious  and  spiritual  discipline.  It  is  now  universally  recognized  that war  is  not  a  necessary  evil  which  must  periodically  appear,.  but  something hateful,  which  can  be  ended  if  mankind  is organised  no an international basis.  There is nothing utopian about Mahatma Gandhis, ideals.

Indeed,  Satyagrah very  lofty  weapon  and  even   Gandhiji’s  own followers  had  not  fully  imbibed  his  ideals. Congress  leaders  accepted the  Satyagrah  technique  partly  because  they  were  convinced  that  it  was a morally  superior  weapon  and   partly  because  it  promised  better  results.  Nehru  publicly  confessed  that  non-violence  was  adopted  as  a  method  of agitation  because  “we  have  not  the  material  or  the  training  for  organised, violence  and  individual  or  sporadic  violence  is  a  confession  of  despair.

Gandhiji  also  envisaged  the  ideal  of  World  Government  to  eliminate injustice  and  oppression.  Such  a Government  would  establish  the  rule of law  among  nations.  and  exploit  world  resources  on  a  scientific  basis  for the  benefit  of  the  human  race  as  a  whole.  It  would  have  some  force its  disposal  to  deal  with  any  act  of  aggression.  Nobody  can  object  to  the:! use  of  this  force  because  it  will  always  be  employed  to  uphold  the  rule   of  law.  The  democratic  State  will  look  after  peoples  internal  affairs  and maintain the  police  to  crush  anti-social  forces.  Obviously, there  is  nothing wrong  with  the  use  of  force  by  a  duly  constituted,  public  spirited  authority in  defence  of.  the  rule  of  law.

Mahatma  Gandhi  distrusted  the  highly  centralised  modern  State  because while  apparently  doing-  good  by  minimizing  exploitation  and  promoting Welfare,  it  destroyed  individuality  and  thereby  impedes  progress.  With all  his  sympathy  for  the  poor  and  the  downtrodden,  he  was  no  socialist using  the  instrument  of  State  to  relieve  distress,  ensure  an  equitable distribution  of  wealth  and  provide  employment  through  planned  scientific exploitation  of  the  national  resources.  He  was  a  decentralise  who  want all  economic  and  political  power  to  be  decentralized  so  that  the  people- might  really  feel  free  and  not  slaves  of  a  centralized  authority  in their  participation  was  only  nominal.  Gandhiji  advocated  village,; autonomy,  each  village,  more  or  less  autonomous  and  self-governing through  panchayats  and  a  loose  federation  of  villages  for  the  satisfaction of  common  needs.

Gandhiji  favoured  simple  and  noble  living,  production  through  cottage.: and  small  scale  industries,  village  self-sufficiency,  manual  labour  and.: self-help.  He  was  dissatisfied  with  the  present  economic  system  and  the growing  trend  towards  materialism.  He  Was  Against  the  modern  craze  for unlimited  wants  and  ostentatious  living  and  against  ever-increasing, mechanisation  of  production  and  huge  industrial  combines  expanding  their operations  and  pushing,  out  small  producers.  He  wanted  everyone  to be employed  and  assured  of  the  basic  conditions  Of  good  life,  such  as  food. Clothing and  shelter.  He  was  not  opposed  to  the  use  of  machinery wanted  machines  to  serve man,  not  to  enslave  him.  He  did  not  have  soft  corner  in  his  heart for the rich.

 Gandhiji was  no  individualist  as  the  term  is,  ordinarily  interpreted- a man impelled by self-interest, working for self-aggrandisement and conceding to society the minimum right to regulate his conduct. He was an advocate of individualism in the moral and spiritual sense of the terms. He was against every custom that degraded man and made a mockery of his spiritual nature. In the practice of untouchability he saw man s most deadly sin. He never subscribed to the theory that women were in any way inferior to men or less intelligent or wise. Widows in his view had as much right to marry as the widowers. He condemned child marriage he denounced intoxicating drugs and drinks as brutalizing men and doing violence to their spiritual nature. Gandhiji s views on education were also inspired by the consideration for forming a sound character. He rejected the caste system based on birth as immoral. He was strongly opposed to exploitation of labour but he also reminded workers of their duty towards their employers, their work and their nation.

The  philosophy  of  life  as  endeared    and  propounded  by  Mahatma Gandhi  has  been  criticized  on  the  ground  that  Independent  India  has completely  repudiated”  it.  Modern  India  is  committed  to  the  operation of  highly  centralised  parliamentary   government,   large  scale industrialisation  on  the  Western  pattern  and  modern -science  at: technology.  But  Gandhijis  views  on  autonomous”  villages,  his advocacy  of  cottage  industries,  charkha  and  Khaddar,  his  general Opposition  to  Mass  production,  big  labour  saving  machinery  and imitation  of  Western  production  methods  should  be  considered  in  the context  of  the  conditions  prevailing  in  the  country.  Besides,  we  must consider  the  spirit  underlying  his  proposals.  He was not  a  philosopher or  a  metaphysical  thinker.  He  has  given  the  world  a  new  way  of life,  a  way  which  is  also  as  old  as  civilisation  itself.   His  greatest contribution  to  modern  thought  lies  in  his  insistence  that  man  is fundamentally  a  spiritual  and  moral  being  and  that  society  is  an association  of  human  spirits,  an  association  which  is  not  limited  in any  way  by  considerations  of  nationality,  race,  creed  or  sex.


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