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English Essay/Paragraph/Speech on “Election Process in India” for Kids and Students for Class 8, 9, 10, Class 12 and Graduation Examination

Election Process in India

India is an Indirect Democracy’ like the U.S.A. and England. Here the entire power of deciding the administrative matters and the power of running the Government is vested in the hands of the people/citizens through their elected representatives. Elections are held here periodically after fixed and specified periods. All the people above a prescribed age are deemed as citizens without any discrimination or distinction of caste, creed, colour, sex or status. Every citizen enjoys the right to exercise his franchise. Under the principle ‘one citizen one vote’ a citizen has the right to cast one vote in the democratic set up. He/she must not be a lunatic or a bankrupt or disqualified by law or debarred from the right to suffrage.

The people express their choice by exercising the right to vote in secret without any pull or pressure. The voter casts his vote in favour of the candidate of his choice through the secret ballot paper. The candidates or the political parties are not in a position to know for certain, which citizens have voted for or against them. The candidate who polls the maximum number of votes is declared elected under the paradoxical system of ‘Simple Majority’ even though he is opposed and disapproved by the majority.

  1. The Election Commission: This is a three-member Commission in which all the three members have powers equal to that of the Chief Election Commissioner. Being free from governmental control, it organises elections impartially. It fixes the entire programme of the elections. It allots election symbols to the candidates who fight elections. It prepares copies of the electoral rolls and fixes election-booths. It also makes arrangements for the safeguard of polling parties, polling agents, voters and other workers.

  1. Candidates: Any person, whether a party candidate or an independent candidate can fight elections if he possesses the required qualifications and his name should exist in the voters’ list. He must not be insane or bankrupt.

  1. Nomination: The name of the candidate should be sponsored and seconded by a required number of voters. He has to fill in the nomination papers and submit them in person within the prescribed time-limit.

  1. Withdrawal of Candidature: The candidates who long to withdraw their candidature can do so on or before the target date fixed by the Election Commission.

  1. Election Symbol: The Election Commission allots the candidate an election symbol if he is found eligible to fight the election. The candidates fighting on behalf of certain recognised political party are usually allotted the symbol of the respective party.


  1. Election Campaign: The period of canvassing and election campaign has been reduced from 20 days to 14 days for reasons of security. Canvassing has to be stopped as a rule at least 48 hours before the actual polling.

  1. Election Countermanding: Keeping in view the rise in terrorism and violence in certain parts of the country combined with the increased danger of disruption of election process, the death of candidates not belonging to recognized political parties would not automatically necessitate the countermanding of the poll.

  1. Election Manifesto and Posters: They contain the documents that elaborate the line of action, objectives, hyperbolic and hollow pre-election promises and schemes of a political party or candidate to beguile the electorate and to exploit their expectations, sentiments and interests.

  1. Code of Conduct: The Election Commission has set up a code of conduct to be observed by the candidates, his supporters and the electorate.

  1. Polling: Identity cards have been issued to the voters. On the basis of the same the voters are identified by the polling agents and are issued ballot papers in the polling booths on the day of the poll. They mark against the name and symbol of the candidate of their choice with a seal in a private and secret voting chamber. They fold the ballot papers and insert them into the ballot box in the presence of the Presiding Officer. The polling party seals the ballot boxes in the presence of the polling agents and sends them for counting to the Election Commissioner’s office.

  1. Counting: The ballot boxes are unsealed and votes are counted in the presence of the counting party, the candidates or their agents. The returning officer declares the candidates polling the largest number of votes as elected. Then they are sworn in and resume their portfolios.


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