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Shorthand Stenography Online Course Chapter 9 “Complete Shorthand Consonants with Outlines”

 

             pee     P       play, ripe, peep          Direction – Down – 45°             

            bee    B       boy, boat, bribe           Direction – Down – 45°

           tee     T       toy, tale, late                  Direction – Down – 0°

           dee    D       dig, drum, deed          Direction – Down – 0°

          chay CH     chin, chest, peach      Direction – Down – 30°

          jay     J j      ust, jet, judge              Direction – Down – 30°

          kay    K       coal, joke, coke           Direction – Horizontal – 0°

         Kway           Quality, Quad              Direction – Horizontal – 0°    

          gay    G       God, good, flag            Direction – Horizontal – 0°

         Gway                                                     Direction – Horizontal – 0°

          hay    H       here, hot, adhere       Direction – Down – 30°

          hay    H       here, hot, adhere        Direction – up – 60°

          way    W      wet, were, weight       Direction – up – 60°

          Hway           Whale,                           Direction – up – 60°

          yay    Y       yak, yoke, yellow         Direction – up – 60°

          el       L        love, light, claim         Direction – up – 45°

         Wel              Well,                               Direction – up – 45°

        Hwel             While,                            Direction – up – 45°

         Ler              fuller,                              Direction – up – 45°

         Ld                Lord,                               Direction – up – 45°

          aar,     R      arm, ark, argue 

         Rer                                                        Direction – Down – 45°

        Rd                                                            Direction – Down – 45°

        ray        R     bore, row, raw           Direction – up – 60°

          ef       F        fine, fair, roof             Direction – Down – 45°

          vee    V v     ery, live, love               Direction – Down – 45°

          ith      TH     three, author, kith    Direction – Down – 0°

          thee   Th      them, that, breathe   Direction – Down – 0°

          es      S       safe, same, strokes        Direction – Down – 0°

          zee    Z        zeal, lease, excuse        Direction – Down – 0°

          ish     SH     shame, shell, brush    Direction – Down – 45°

          zhee   ZH     television, measure   Direction – Down – 45°

          em     M       mile, milk, Bombay    Direction – Down – 90°

          Imb                                                         Direction – Down – 90°

           Md                                                           Direction – Down – 90°

          en      N       nice, news, queen         Direction – Down – 90°

         nd                                                              Direction – Down – 90°

          ing     NG     ling, king, belong         Direction – Down – 90°

 

 

 

Classification 

The consonants may be classified as under:

1. Explodents: The first eight consonants viz. P, B, T, D, CH, J, K & G are Consonants :: 15 called as explodents because while pronouncing them the outgoing breath is forced through barriers already closed.

2. Continuants : Consonants F, V , TH, TH, S, Z SH & ZH are called as continuants, because while pronouncing them the outgoing breath goes in a continuous stream.

3. Nasals: Consonants M, N, NG are called as nasals because the outgoing breath goes out through nose.

4. Liquids: Consonants L & R are called as liquids, because liquids flow into union with other consonants preceding these two i.e. L & R.

5. Coalescents : Consonants W & Y are known as coalescents because these precede vowels & unite with them.

6. Aspirate : Consonant H is classified as an aspirate because these follow vowels.

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