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Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Major Diseases : Their Nature and Causes” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Major Diseases : Their Nature and Causes

 

Malaria—To combat this communicable disease, the Government started the National Malaria Eradication Programme. It is a centrally sponsored programme where the concerned states have to bear half the cost. The success of this programme can be gauged from the fact that from 7.5 lakh victims of Malaria in 1958 the incidents of Malaria were completely eliminated. However due to development of resistance by parasites, a modified plan of operation was started in 1977. The measures for controlling the disease include detection, treatment, reducing vector population through spraying, identification of malaria prone areas and creating health awareness. It should be noted that the protozoan disease malaria is caused by Plasmodium Falciform and Plasmodium Vivax. It is spread by the female anopheles mosquitoes.

An Australia scientist Donald Gardinar has recently discovered the gene that causes malaria. The gene is concerned with the production of P.F. E.M.P. protein by plasmodium falciform which make the red blood cells stick to the blood vessels through a process called Cyto-adherence. It is hoped that the discovery of the gene would help develop curative measures to combat malaria.

Tuberculosis—This disease is caused by a bacteria. It is caused by absorption through either lungs or intestine. It can be cured by using drugs like Refampicin, Isoniazid, Ethambutel or Pyrazinamide. If due to negligence in taking the full course of the drugs T.B. reoccurs then second line drugs like Oflexicin or cyclosporine are given to the patients. The BCT vaccine has not had the desired result in checking this disease. The National Tuberculosis control programme was started in 1962 but it could achieve little. Even today, about 12 lakhs people become victims of this disease out of which 5 lakhs people die annually.

Cancer—Cancer is a dreaded word in medical field. In India, at present there are 2 million cases of cancer and every year 3 lakh people die. It is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, Cancerous cells complete with normal cells for nutrient and kill them favouring tumors. Tumors are either, Benign or Malignant. Onlogenes are cancer producing genes which under certain conditions multiply rapidly from malignant tumours. Agents producing cancer are called carcinogens. The National Cancer Control Programme launched in 1975 has failed to deliver the good. The more dangerous form of cancer include those of the oral cavity, cervix and breast. About 30 percent of the cancer is related to tobacco use. The disease is cured through surgery, radio therapy and chemotherapy. A sophisticated machine, the LINAC has been installed in PGI Chandigarh but the exorbitant cost treatment has made it incompetent to deal with the growing number of cases among the poorer sections of the society.

Leprosy—It is caused by the bacteria. Leprosy destroys the peripheral nerves, causes disfiguring skin patches and lumps. Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, M.P. and Orissa are the most vulnerable states. The National Leprosy Control Programme was launched in 1955; the multidrug treatment (MDT) including Refampicin, Clofazamine and Dapsone have been highly effective to combat the disease.

Polio—It is a communicable disease which mainly affects children below five years of age. The Polio virus affects mouth, liver, intestine and spinal cord. Contaminated food and water are the major carriers of this disease and cause life long paralysis. So far no drug has been made that can kill the virus hence preventive measures gain priority. The oral polio vaccine developed by Dr. Albert Sabin and the Injectable Polio Vaccine discovered by Jonas Salk are the main methods to check the disease. The government has started the pulse polio scheme all over the country.

Hepatitis—Hepatitis is caused by virus. These viruses are of 6 types—named A,B,C,D,E and G respectively. Out of these the A and G are found in water. All the Others are transmitted through blood. In India, the B and C types of viruses are more prominent; the problem with this disease is that it is not early identifiable. A new vaccine made by Hyderabad based Sha9ta Biotechniques called, Sharvac B is being used to vaccinate children.

Dengue Fever—It is a viral fever caused by the mosquito which bites in the morning hours. There are three stages of this disease. In the first stage, the patient has high fever for four to five days. He has pain in the eyes, head and joints. It is normally cured in a few days. The second stage is the dengue-hemorrhage fever. It results in internal bleeding. If the patients blood is not transferred he may die. The third stage of this disease called the dengue shock syndrome. In this stage, the patients blood pressure decreases and he suffers shocks.

Colour Blindness—Colour Blindness is a hereditary disease characterized by an inability to distinguish clearly the colours of the spectrum. In most cases, it is not a blindness but a weakness in perceiving them distinctly. There are two forms of colour blindness. Daltonism is the most common for man and is characterized by an inability to distinguish red colour from green colour. It is an inherited sex-linked disorder. Total colour blindnessor achromatic vision is characterized by an inability to preview any colour at all. Only white, grey and black are seen.

Kala Azar—This disease is wide spread in West Bengal and Bihar. This disease is caused by amoeba and spread by sand flies. Heavy infection results in the enlargement of the spleen and liver, while minor infection merely affects the skin. The ELISA R.K. 39 kit is successfully being used to diagnose this disease.

Filariasis—This disease is caused and transmitted by mosquitoes. In this disease, the lymphatic channels are blocked and it results in a disease called elephantiasis. The whole of southern India particularly Tamil Nadu is affected by this disease. A major treatment method for this disease is the use of a mixture of salt and diethylcarbamazine citrate. To control this disease, the National Filaria Control Programme was launched in 1955.

Blindness—India tops the world in the number of blind people. The major cause of blindness is cataract which covers four-fifth of the total cases of blindness. Other causes of blindness are trachoma small pox, vitamin A deficiency glaucoma and injuries. What is intriguing is the fact that the majority of these cases is curable. Considering this fact, the Government started the National Programme for control of Blindness in 1976.

Iodine Deficiency Disorder—Iodine is used by thyroxin gland to produce thyroxin which affects our growth and development. Apart from Goitre, Cretinism, neonatal hypothyroidism, spontaneous abortions etc. also occur due to lack of iodine. To control goitre, the National Goitre Control Programme was launched in 1962.

Fiuorosis—It is caused by fluorine which is present in water. If the intake of fluorine exceeds 8 ppm it can cause skeletal fluorosis. The Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission has identified 15 state as endemic of fluorosis. As there is no cure of fluorosis, preventive steps like mixing lime, alum or bleaching powder in water have to be undertaken.

Bird Flu—This disease resembles influence and is caused by a virus HSNA. The virus is composed of different antigens. The virus enters man through chicken. In December 1987 10 lakh chicken were killed as they were suffering from bird flue.

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