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Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “India’s Space Programme” Complete Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

India’s Space Programme

India can be really proud of the elite band of India’s space scientists who refuse to give up hope whatever be the daunting challenges or setbacks they face. When their own experiments fail, it only spurs them on for trial after trial till they wrest victory from adversity. When countries like US refused to transfer technology or prevent even our friendly countries from transferring their technology to this country, Indian scientists refused to turn pessimistic; hurdles only reinforced their resolve to bank upon their own genius and innovativeness to attain what was a few years ago dismissed as beyond their reach.

Indian space-scientists once again gave testimony to the axiom that ‘nothing is impossible if one combines dedication, will power and perseverance’ when they opened yet another chapter in the space saga on September 29, 1997 when the indigenous PSLV-C1 rocket launched 1200 kg. Indian remote sensing satellite IRS 1-D into its sun synchronous orbit. As the 44.4 meter tall, 294 tonne polar satellite launch vehicle entered into the sky from Sriharikota in Andhra pradesh, carrying a satellite of nearly 300 kg. which heavier than the previous IRS-16. It made every Indian swell with pride as there could be no better gift from our scientists on the golden jubilee of India’s independence.

What was originally hailed as a textbook precision launch was later discovered to be a bit faulty when it came to be known that the IRS-ID launched by PSLV did not reach the correct orbit due to a mishap in the fourth stage of the launch. ISRO sources said that the ‘apogee’ (farthest point from the earth) of the satellite was nearly allright at 817 km. and efforts were on the lift the ‘perigree’ (nearest point) of the satellite to 700 km. from the 300 km. Our scientists did not lose hope and persisted in their efforts to correct the orbit and within a matter of days on October 7, 1997, they succeeded in placing the satellite in a functional orbit from where the on board cameras could take imageries of the earth.

With the launch of IRS-ID, Indian space department has become a force to reckon with in the fiercely competitive billion dollar global satellite launch market. Besides saving the millions of dollars spent on the launch of Indian remote sensing satellites by other countries, India can now reap foreign exchange by launching low earth orbit space craft weighting 400-500 kg. for other countries. All along, many of our satellite used to be launched from either Kourou in French Guyana or Baikonourcosmodrome in (IS Common-wealth of Independent states). India has already signed an agreement with South Korea to launch a 110 k. satellite by the next PSLV; the South Korean satellite rode piggyback on PSLV that placed another remote sensing satellite, IRS P4, in orbit next year, meanwhile, India is hoping to secure more customers for the IRS data that is already being marketed to one of the US company under a billion dollar contract. Potential customers for IRS data include Japan, Australia and South Africa.

IRS-ID, has enhanced capabilities in terms of spatial resolution, additional spectral bands, stereoscopic imaging and wide field coverage. The satellite also carries a tape recorder on board for recording data even when the satellite is not visible to any of the ground stations. IRS-1 D also holds tremendous promise in defence logistics; its imagery can be used for strategic purposes such as monitoring of military movements. It has three panchromatic cameras which provide a total coverage of 70 km on the ground. In addition it has wide field sensor, operating in the visible and infra red region with a spatial resolution of 188 meter and a wide swath of 810 km. The real strategic benefit is from the panchromatic camera, with a resolution of 5.8 m. giving digital elevation models (DEM) and better contour mapping, essential for artillery targeting systems and low level contour flying.

An independent dual purpose (civil-military) satellite, gave India a cutting edge in the intelligence based warfare (IBW), actually a battle of wits and knowledge requiring sophisticated reconnaissance and surveillance capability. Modern warfare demands a networking of information, gathered with the help of satellites, between field commanders in a theatre of war. It may be recalled that during the gulf war in 1991 US jets, guided by on time, could carry out precision attacks on Iraqi targets.

While the future of our space programmes looks rosy, there is little room for complacency. We are often dogged by setbacks, triggered either by human inadequacies or circumstances beyond our control. One of the greatest reverses recently has been the mishap that overtook our most advanced communication satellite INSAT 2D which was declared “inoperable” by the department of space on October 5, 1997. The Satellite has been rendered crippled by ‘short circuited electrical problem. As a consequence of INSAT-2D failure, at last 83 telephone exchanges, mostly in the north and north-east of the country, lost terrestrial links with the transponders on board INSAT-2D. efforts made by the master control facility at Hassan to revive the satellite proved abortive. INSAT-2D is the second satellite in the INSAT series to suffer. The INSAT-1C launched in July 1988 had to be abandoned due to a similar power problem in November 1989.

Meanwhile the successful blast of PSLV-C1, country’s first indigenous polar satellite launch vehicle from Sriharikota Range (SHAR) on September 29, 1997, launching the 1200 kg. IRS-1D has placed the country in the exclusive club of 4 nations (USA, Russia, France and Israel) capable of launching 1000 kg. class of satellites and has ended IRO’s dependence on Russian and French Ariane Vehicles to launch IRS satellites.

Earlier, ISRO successfully launched, ‘Rohinr—sounding rocket from SHAR on April 28, 1998 carrying a set of instruments from Germany to study the upper atmosphere. In 1999 India crossed an important milestone in space technology with a successful satellite launch including two foreign satellites one German Tubsat and the other South Korean Kitsat besides the indigenous ocean remote sensing IRS P4 on board PSLV-C2 on May 26, 1999 from Sriharikota. Thus proclaiming to the world its capabilities to provide launch services to foreign satellites commercially in the process, ISRO netted $1 million recovering almost the entire cost (Rs. 48 crore) of its IRS-P4 dedicated to ocean studies.

ISRO also successfully launched the third generation INSAT-3B on March 22, 2000 from Kourou in French Guyana and GSLV in April 2001; marking the completion of India’s bid to become fully self-reliant in its ambitious space programme. In October 2001, India successfully launched PSLV-3C carrying, German’s Bird and Belgium’s Probe alongwith TES (Technology Experiment Satellite).

India’s achievements in space technology and research show that our scientists and engineers are equal to those in advanced countries and whenever a challenge is thrown to them, they are prepared to accept it and come with their best for the nation.


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