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Essay on “Republic Day-January 26” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Essay No. 01

Republic Day – January 26

4 Best Essay on Republic Day 

The Constitution of India came into force and India declared itself as a “Republic” on January 26. 1950, a date thereafter celebrated annually as Republic Day in India. The Constitution had been prepared by the Constituent Assembly which was set up upon India gaining its independence from the British in 1947.

Although India obtained its independence on August 15, 1947, the Constitution of India came into effect only on January 26, 1950. During the transition period from 1947 to 1950, King George VI was the head of state. Lord Mountbatten and C. Rajagophalachari served as the Governors-General of India during this period. Following January 26, 1950, Rajendra Prasad was elected the first president of India.

Celebration of the Republic Day

Republic Day is celebrated with much enthusiasm all over the country and especially in the capital, New Delhi where the celebrations start with the President’s Address to the nation. The beginning of the occasion is always a solemn reminder of the sacrifice of the occasion is always a solemn reminder of the sacrifice of the martyrs who died for the country in the freedom movement and the succeeding wars for the defense of sovereignty medals of bravery to the people from the armed forces for their exceptional courage in the field and the civilians, who have distinguished themselves by their different acts of valuor in different situations.                  

To mark this occasion, a grand parade is held in New Delhi, beginning from Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan, along the Rajpath, past India Gate, and on the historic Red Fort in the old quarter of the city. Different infantry, cavalry, and mechanized regiments of the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, and the Indian Air Force March in formation, decked in all their finery and official decorations. 

The President of  India, who is also the Commander–in–Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, takes the salute. The Chief Guest of the parade is the Head of State of another nation. The parade also includes many traditional dance troupes, to symbolize the cultural heritage of India. It traditionally ends with a colourful flypast by Air Force jets in a tiranga formation. Similar parades are held in the capitals of all the states of India, where the Governors of the respective states take the salute.  

Constitution of India

Republic Day reminds us of the fulfillment of the pledge that was made on the midnight of Independence as a “tryst with destiny”. It is future- rented, a vision of India that we nourish, and acceptance of responsibility and making of promises as well as a recapitulation of the achievements. The act of framing the constitution puts a spotlight on B.R. Ambedkar whose indefatigable labour and sharp insight helped the preparation of the document.

The difference in significance marks the variation in the pattern of celebration of two national days. On Independence Day, the past is recalled whereas, on Republic Day, the pledge is renewed. Independence Day has rhetoric built in the celebration; Republic  Day is without speeches. It is the only ceremony in which rhetoric is in the background and visuals are given priority.

The constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world, containing 395 articles and 12 schedules, as well as numerous amendments, for a total of 117, 369 words in the English language version.

The first word of the Preamble – “ “We, the people” – signifies that power is ultimately vested in the hands of the people of India. The Preamble lays down the most important national goals which every citizen and the government must try to achieve, such as socialism, secularism, and national integration.


We, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic, and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

An interesting side note concerns the words “SOCIALIST” and “SECULAR” in the preamble. The original drafting used the words “SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC”. The two additional words “SOCIALIST” and “SECULAR” were introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976.


Important words in the Preamble


The word sovereign means supreme or independent. India is internally and externally sovereign – externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government, which is directly elected by the people and makes laws that govern the people.


It implies social and economic equality. Social equality in this context means the absence of discrimination on the grounds of caste, colour, creed, sex, religion, language, etc. under social equality, everyone has equal status and opportunities. Economic equality means that the government will endeavour to make the distribution of wealth more equal and provide a decent standard of living for all. This is effect emphasizing a commitment towards the formation of a welfare state.


It implies equality of all religions and religious tolerance India, therefore does not have an official state religion. Every person has the right to preach, practice, and propagate any religion he or she chooses. The government must not favour or discriminate against any religion. It must treat all religions with equal respect. All citizens, irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal in the eyes of law.


India is a democratic country. The people of India elect their governments at all levels (Union, state, and local) by a system of the universal adult franchise; popularly known as ‘One man one vote. Every citizen of India, who is 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law, is entitled to vote. Every citizen enjoys this right without any discrimination.    


As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on a hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne, a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. The President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years. The post of the President of India is not hereditary every citizen of India is eligible to become the president of the country.

National Symbols

National symbols are intrinsic to the Indian identity and heritage. Indians of all demographic backgrounds across the world are proud of these National Symbols as they instill a sense of pride and patriotism in every Indian’s heart:

National Flag

The National Flag is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the center of the white band is a navy-blue wheel, which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The Constituent Assembly of India adopted the design of the National Flag on 22 July 1947. 

National Emblem

The national emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull, and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).

In the national emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the center of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on the left and the outlines of other wheels on the extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, are inscribed below the abacus in the Devanagari script.

National Anthem

The song Jana- Gana – mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National    Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem:

Jana – gana- mana – adhinayaka, jaya he

Bharata – bhagya – vidhata.

Punjab – Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha

Dravida- Utkala-Banga

Vindhya-Himachala- Yamuna – Ganga

Uchchala- Jaladhi – taranga.

 Tava shubha asisa mange,

Gahe tava jaya gatha,

Jana-gana –mangala – dayaka jaya he

Bharata – bhagya – vidhata.

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,

Jaya jaya jaya , jaya he!

The playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. The following is Tagore’s English rendering of the anthem:

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,

The dispenser of India’s destiny.

Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,

 Gujarat and Maratha,

Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;

It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,

Mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is

Chanted by the waves of the India Sea.

They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.

The saving of all people waits in thy hand,

Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.

Victory, victory, victory to thee.

National Song

The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchadra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana- gana- mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the the1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the  text of its first stanza:

Vande Mataram!

Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,

Shasyashyamalam, Matram!

Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim,

Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,

Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,

Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!

The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose.

I bow to thee, Mother,

Richly – watered, richly – fruited,

Cool with the winds of the south,

Dark with crops of the harvests,

The Mother!

Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,

Her lands clothed beautifully with  her trees in flowering

Bloom, sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,

The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.


National Animal

The magnificent Tiger is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility, and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India.

National Bird

The Indian peacock, the national bird of India is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye, and a long, slender neck.

National Flower

Lotus is the National Flower of India. This sacred flower occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.      

The Polity

The Union and its Territory

India comprises 28  states and 7 Union Territories. They are Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. Union Territories are Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Lakshadweep, and Puducherry.


The Constitution of India provides for single citizenship for the whole of India. Every person who was at the commencement of the constitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India, and (a) who was born in India, or (b) either of whose parents were born in India or (c) who has been ordinarily a resident in India for not less than five years, became a citizen of India. The Citizenship Act, of 1955 deals with matters relating to the acquisition, determination, and termination of Indian citizenship after the commencement of the Constitution.

RD message of the First President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad

“  We must re-dedicate ourselves on this day to the peaceful but sure realization of the dream that had inspired the Father of our Nation and the other captions and soldiers of our freedom struggle, the dream of establishing a classless, co-operative, free, and happy society in his country”. “We must remember that this is more a day of dedications than of rejoicing – dedication to the glorious task of making the peasants and worker the toilers and the thinkers fully free, happy and cultured,” he added.    


Essay No. 2

The Republic Day

India got independence on 15th August 1947. Before independence on August 15 so it is called Independence Day. India became a Republic on the 26th of January 1950. So it is called Republic Day. Republic means a state whose head is elected by the people. It was so because the new constitution of free India came into force on this day. Before, there was no constitution in India. No president was there. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the first President of free India.

We celebrate Independence. Day. Like it, we also celebrate our Republic Day. It is celebrated in every village, town, city of India, and capital of each state as well as in Delhi, the capital of India. Its celebration has a great significance. It is celebrated at India Gate in Delhi at the national level. On this day, it is the President of India who unfurls the national flag. He takes the salutes presented by three wings of Army, Police, N.C.C., and other important personalities. People from all over the country come to see the Republic function.

The Republic Day procession starts at 8 a.m. A running commentary on the program is broadcasted by Doordarshan and All India Radio. In school, it is celebrated at different times. About 10000 people from the Army, Navy, and Air Force take part in the procession. The latest progress of the country is shown in different forms. Cadets of N.C.C.,  A.C.C., Boy scouts, and girl guides also take part. Teams of students from different schools were also present to show their P.T. exercises. As the last item of function colourd balloons go into the sky and the celebration comes to end. Tri colour of National Flag by aeroplanes is a memorable show. Different peculiar cultural, industrial and agricultural progress in different displays statewide was charming and pleasant. Here we see the unity of India at one spot.

National flags are hoisted at every state capital and important cities by concerning authorities. Our school also celebrates this function every year. A chief guest is invited for this ceremony. We prepare different items – P.T. exercises, parades, speeches, and some alive models of freedom fighters. Parents and other important persons are invited. Good knowledge about our freedom struggle is described by the  teachers as well as students. we promise to serve our country and to be honest and responsible future citizens.

We love our country. We are ready to sacrifice everything to safeguard our freedom. This day reminds us of the sacrifices suffered by our forefathers. It also points out to our future responsibility. We feel proud to be in India.


Essay No. 03


Republic Day Celebrations


The National Festival of 26th January

India became a republic on 26th January 1950. It was on this day that the Constitution of India came into force. Since then the day is celebrated with great enthusiasm throughout the country.

The main celebrations are held in Delhi. The place which is the center of attraction is the lawns from Vijaya Chowk to India Gate, Thousands of People from the capital and other cities and tourists from all over the world gather there to witness the procession. Those who can’t come watch it over the TV.

There is almost always one or the other foreign dignitary every year who is invited to attend the function. The President comes in a bullet-proof car from the Rashtrapati Bhawan and is received by the Prime Minister. He hoists the flag and the National Anthem is sung by the school students. The procession marks the endless variety of Indian culture and is symbolic of the progress made by India in various fields. Thus the military might of India is displayed not just by the military parade in which the three wings of the Indian forces participate but also by a display of various missiles, tanks, and other weaponry possessed by the country. Contingents of NCC from schools and colleges drawn from all over the country follow the army personnel.

The main attraction to the spectators is the cultural pageants of different States and folk dances of the tribal’s. The school children also march and dance for a short distance.

The jets and helicopters blaze the sky and throw rose petals on the spectators and the precisionists. Finally, gas balloons presenting the colours of the tricolour are released in the sky. Some of the important buildings like the Rashtrapati Bhawan, the Central Secretariat and the

India Gate is tastefully illuminated at night. There is the beat of the retreat on 27th January when the tribal’s and others return to their home states.



Essay No. 04

Essay on “Republic Day”

Twenty-sixth January is a red-letter day in the history of our nation. It was on this day that our own Constitution came into force and our country became a secular, democratic republic. It also reminds us of the day when the Congress Party took a historic pledge to free the country from the foreign rule in 1931. The preparations arrangements are made in the lawns near India Gate. There are both V.I.P. seats and ordinary seats. The tickets are made available from different places. One platoon from every regiment takes part in the parade. In the same way, the sailors and airmen are drawn from the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The country proudly displays her night through the gums tanks, ships, and aeroplanes. The function starts early in the morning. The Prime Minister lays a garland near Jawan Jyoti. He pays homage to the martyrs who gave their lives to save the nation. At exactly 8 A.M. the President reaches the saluting base and is received by Prime Minister and other Ministers. He is also the Supreme Commander of our armed forces. The march begins with the heroes of the earlier wars. All those members of the armed forces who won the highest decoration, i.e., the Param Vir Chakra lead the march. Then come the young boys and girls who win the bravery award for the year. The soldiers march briskly. The band plays martial tunes. As they pass the saluting base, they turn their eyes towards the President. The Commanding Officer salutes and marches on. The members of the paramilitary forces also take part in the march. Last of all come the Jhankies of various states in which they display the life of the people. The cultural troupes also perform the folk dances. The students drawn from various schools of Delhi bring up the rear. They put up a very beautiful show in the form of dances and national songs with action. The whole program is telecast on the TV. On January 28th, there is a beating of retreat. The soldiers taking part in the parade march back to their barracks. It is one of the most charming displays out up by our armed forces every year.


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