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Essay on “Constitution of India” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Constitution of India

India is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary form of Government. The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950.

Salient Features

The salient features of the Constitution of India are: ,(1) It is rigid as well as flexible. (2) It is the longest in the world. (3) It reconciles Parliamentary Sovereignty with Judicial Supremacy. (4) It provides Fundamental Rights and their Constitutional Remedies. (5) It proclaim that the People are Sovereign. (6) Parliamentary form of Govt. has been adopted. (7) It is Federal in form but Unitary in spirit. (8) It has introduced Universal Franchise. (9) It incorporated Directive Principles of State Policy. (10) It establishes Independent Judiciary with provisions for Judicial Review.


Fundamental Rights

The Constitution offers all its citizens individually and collectively the following basic rights and freedoms. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six categories of Fundamental Rights. These are:

(1) The right to equality including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, or sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in the matters of employment. (2) The right to freedom of speech and expression; assembly; association or union, movement”, residence; and the right to practice any profession or occupation. Some of these rights are subject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, decency and morality. (3) The right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic in I human beings. (4) The right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice propagation of religion. (5) The right to conserve culture, language or script and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice, (6) The right to constitutional remedies for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

Fundamental Duties

The Constitution also enumerates certain fundamental duties. These enjoin upon a citizen, among other things, to abide by the Constitution, to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom, to defend the country and render national service when called’ upon to do so and to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religions, linguistic and regional and sectional diversities.

Parliamentary Form of Government

India follows the Parliamentary system like that prevailing in Britain. The President is the Head of the Executive at the Centre but the actual power rests in the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet collectively is responsible to the Lok Sabha. In the State the Governor is the Head of the Executive but the real power is vested in the Council of Ministers, under the Chief Minister which is accountable to the Legislative Assembly. The Cabinet of Ministers at the Centre is the Executive. It remains in office as long as it enjoy the confidence of the majority of the members of the Lok Sabha. The Executive takes all the decisions in the name of the President.

Directive Principles

The Indian Constitution also incorporates certain Directive Principles of State Policy. These are important and basic to the governance and administration of the State. They are the directives to the State and all authorities are to be guided by these principles. These principles of State policy aim at securing of social justice to minimize inequality of income, status, facilities and opportunities, amongst individuals and groups. But the directive principles are not justifiable. It means that they are not enforceable in the courts. They simply underline what is really desirable or what ought to be but cannot be enforced. They are the ideals which should be kept in view as far as possible in running the administration. In all there are 21 Directive Principles of State Policy which help to take the country to the goal of peace, progress and prosperity.

Citizenship The Constitution of India provides for a single citizenship, that is, the citizenship of India. Under the Constitution the under mentioned categories of persons became citizens of India at the commencement of the Constitution: (1) Persons born and domiciled in India. (2) Persons domiciled in the territory of India, whose parents were born in India. (3) A person who has domiciled in the territory of India and residing in India ordinarily for a period of at least five years. (4) Certain categories of persons who had migrated to India from Pakistan. (5) Indians who are residing abroad but who make a clear application to acquire Indian citizenship.


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