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Essay on “Antarctica Expedition” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Antarctica Expedition


The oceans have rightly been called the last frontier for mankind. They form a vast source of many vital resources including living and non-living. As the land resources are being rapidly exhausted, man has finally turned to the seas and oceans for satisfying his requirements in future. Keeping these facts in view our Government established the Department of Ocean Development under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister, in July 1981. Since then vigorous efforts are being made to exploit the seas sprawling on the three sides of our subcontinent. Nearly 20 lakh sq. km. of sea area is under our jurisdiction. In this area we have the exclusive right to use the living and non-living resources of the sea. Our Antarctica Expedition is an integral part of this ocean development programme.

Our success on Antarctica speaks volumes of our laudable scientists and technological achievements in this field. An Indian team of 20 members reached Antarctica from Goa on board a Norwegian ship called Polar circle on 1st January 1982. The team consisting of scientists, army-navy personnel, technicians, etc., was led by Dr. S.Z. Qasim, a noted oceanographer and then the Secretary of Department of Ocean Development. The Indian team established a base camp at 69 degrees, 59 minutes south and 11 degrees 7 minutes east on 9th January. The team remained on Antarctica for ten days. They established a permanent station about 80 km. from land base camp in a hilly region and named it Dakshin Gangotri. During this brief stay they carried out many important scientific experiments in the fields of meteorology, geomagnetism, geology, etc. They brought many valuable samples of rocks, etc., from there to be analysed in our laboratories. In hoary past, millions of years ago, India, Australia, Africa, Asia, etc., formed a single landmass or a super continent, and it was called Gondwana Land after one of our regions in the Central India. But gradually all these continents separated and finally drifted to their present positions because of continental drift caused by so many geological and geo-magnetic forces at work.

The continent of Antarctica is unique in many respects. Its influence on global atmosphere, specially on the weather of Indian Ocean region is very great. It is also very rich in various mineral deposits. The expeditions provide ample opportunities to our scientists to study various sciences such as geology, geophysics. geomagnetism, glaciology, environmental pollution, etc. These studies are likely to help us greatly in under-standing and exploiting the resources of Antarctica, living and non-living including those of the sea around India.

The team made a wonderful discovery in the Indian Ocean. It was that of a mountain under the seawater. It is about 7500 km. from Goa and 300 km. from the Antarctica coast. It was named Indira Mountain to honour the great efforts made by the then Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi in the field of ocean development.

Since then we have established a second permanent station there named Maitri. The third expedition during 1983-84 included for the first time two women scientists. It consisted of 83 members including 12 persons who remained behind as a winter team to carry out further experiments during austral winter. So far we have sent 10 successful expeditions. Out of every expedition team a number of them are left behind while the rest return to India with the last year’s winter team. The weather conditions there are very trying, inhospitable and hostile so much so that during winter the temperature may drop to minus 50 degrees Celsius below zero.


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