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Solved Exercise for Precis writing with Title “Attainments of Ancient India” Precis for Class 9, 10, 11, 12 and Higher classes.

Passages with Solved Precis

The stigma cast on the people of India as a semi-barbarous people by foreign Christian Missionaries has well-nigh died out on the writings of Sir William Jones, Wilson, Max Muller and other Savants and the extensive cultivation of Sanskrit language and literature have dispelled the delusion and given Hindus a high place in the, scale of civilized nations. Several Indian institutions and practices which were reckoned as blots in the economic structure of Indian society have enlisted a gradually, increasing number of defenders. The division of the people into castes is not now subjected to so intense detraction as before, the practice of infant marriage is held not to be without its advantages and. the memorable letter of Raja Sir Radha Kant Dev to Lord Bentinck in defence of the practice of self-immolation or Salis remains up to his time unanswered and unrebutted. In the domain of theory, politics, philosophy, science and art, the achievements of Hindu sages have come to be recognised as unparalleled for their wisdom and’ excellence.

In the kingdoms and dependencies into which the country was divided, the rulers hardly ever exercised absolute powers. In the decision of important questions they were always assisted by a body of Brahmins whose counsel was rarely disregarded. Even in those early times, people were so keen about political rights that the question whether legislative powers should be united in the same person or body of persons who exercised executive powers was put in issue in some deadly battles in which Parasuram, the son of Jamadagni, was at the held of liberal party and the king on the opposite side. The result was that the legislative power was withdrawn from the executive and entrusted to Brahmin counsellors: The internal administration of the territories displayed a high state of refinement and although the penal laws appeared at first sight to be unnecessarily harsh, one should take into account the condition of society and the conflicting interests of the different sections of the people which those laws were intended to protect. Even at present the punishment is regulated not only by the enormity of an offence but also by the frequency and prevalence of the crime which it is intended to check,

 The achievements of the Hindus in the field of theology, philosophy, astronomy, poetry and medicine have elicited the highest encomiums from those who have studied their works, No country can boast of a prouder array of illustrious names than those of Kalides, Sankaracharya, Gautam, Charak, Vyas and Bhaskaracharya.

To a student of the ancient civilisation of India, Egypt and Greece, the conclusion is irresistible that these countries had at one time mutual communication with each other. We are assured on the authority of Sir William Jones that the creative, preserving and destructive principles are represented in all of these three countries by three distinct divinities and that the similarity extends even to their names. The study of ancient India is, therefore, no less interesting than instructive to the children of the soil. Thanks to the labours of eminent antiquarians, a good deal of valuable information has been placed before the public on the subject. Buried tablets have been dug from the bowels of the earth, mouldering pillars have been raised, coins and medals struck in commemoration of important events have been recovered from the sepulchral darkness of three thousand years and the absolute characters engrossed on them have with immense toil been deciphered and explained, but still much remains to be done, Indian gentlemen should take upon themselves the task of exploring the rich mines of Indian antiquity and throw light on subjects which are at present enveloped in darkness and obscurity.

One other subject on which I would invite enquiry is the Geological History of India. We do not know what the condition of India was when more than half of Europe lay submerged in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, and the crocodile, the elephant, the tiger, the lion and other denizens of the tropics found a congenial climate in the plains of Siberia and the waters of Obi and Yenisei. But leaving aside prehistoric times, we do not know what physical changes India has undergone since it was peopled by human beings. Our information is as scanty as can be regarding the cities and towns which have been entombed in the bowels of the earth by volcanic action, the changes undergone in the courses of the Principle Rivers and the extent of country which has been submerged by water. To cite a few examples, I would refer you to the delta of the Ganges and Brahamputra which extends from the Bay of Bengal to Rajmahal in the North and from Midriapur to Dacca in the East and which has been gained over from the domains of the ocean within a comparatively recent period in the earth’s history, to the ancient city of Gujni which together with 80 other large’ towns in the Provinces of Malwa and Bagur were overwhelmed and buried by a shower of earth at the time of Raja Vikramaditya, to the traces of cities with temples and houses sunk in the bowels of the earth in the beautiful valley of Kashmir and to the Rann of Cutch which submerged in the bosom of Indian Ocean in consequence of two successive shocks of earth-quake. The details of these physical changes might well form the subject of very interesting study and research. The formulation of the delta, for instance, which concerns us most, involves not only the question of the probable time taken for its formation but also the changes in the temperature of the country and in the habitats of plants and animals which it affected. The quantity of sand and silt carried down annually by the two rivers in every cubic feet of water and spread over the delta and the bottomless pit of the Bay of Bengal has been calculated to be 6370 millions of cubic feet every year. As the process continues eyen to the present-day, the level of the delta would have been much higher/ had it not been for the fact that there is an annual subsidence of about 4 inches by volcanic actions. The temperature of the whole of north-east 16 part of India has so much increased, there is indubitable evidence to show that the glaciers of the Himalayas descend now several thousand feet less than the height to which they descended before. The subject is one full of engrossing interest. It cannot fail to claim from every educated Indian, that study and research without which every enquiry regarding the history of ancient India must be necessarily defective.


Attainments of Ancient India

Max Muller and other European Iridologists has removed the slur of India being a barbarian country. Even the caste system; infant marriage and sati have unanswerable arguments on their sides. Ancient India achieved greatness in politics, philosophy, art, science and other fields of human endeavour. The Brahmins played a very essential part in the administration of the past.

The combination of executive and legislative powers in the same person was hotly contested in ancient India and controversies raged round deprivation of public rights by the rulers. While executive powers were with the Kshatriyas, the legislative powers rested with the Brahmins. The penal laws were very severe by these were justified by the prevailing circumstances.

The attainments of the Hindus in religion, philosophy, poetry and medicine have received highest praise from the Western Indoiogists. Our country produced such prominent figures as Kalidas, Sankaracharya; Gautam, Charak, Vyas and Bhaskarcharya. There is no doubt that India, Egypt and Greece had inter-relation and inter-communication in the past. As discovered by Sir William Jones, ‘these countries were following three distinct divinities. Ancient pillars and tablets have yielded us a rich treasure of knowledge about our ancient progress and prosperity.

The geological changes in our country need investigation by the expert scientists, because the country has been undergoing great geological changes throughout our history. Many cities of India have been submerged by the volcanic action and are buried under the earth. The earthquakes in India have entombed our ancient civilization and wisdom.


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