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Essay on “The Educational System in India” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

The Educational System in India


Education should develop a spirit of inquiry and rational thinking in the youth so as to enable them to understand the society and the world. So for, Indian educational system was based on Lord Macaulay s framework It had, therefore, been instrumental in providing only white collared babus. It was hardly related to the socioeconomic reality. The National Education Policy of 1968 could hardly bring any change in the prevalent System. The New Education Policy, 1986 gives a vocational slant to the educational system, which is a welcome change.

Education is an Important activity in society It gives an opportunity no man to understand the world around him and his place in it In ancient times than was completely at the mercy of nature which was a complete mystery to him. The dark forces of nature were beyond the comprehension of man and to console himself he had to depend upon the existence of supernatural powers and this led to the growth of religion and superstition. The invention of tools, domestication of animals and growth of agriculture led to organization of society and along with this developed social sciences.

Thus, in education we combine the study of natural laws with the laws governing the development of society. Knowledge and understanding come to us through the study of natural sciences (chemistry, physics, biology, etc) and the social sciences (history, political science, etc). The acquisition, Interlinking and the transmission of this knowledge and understanding is the primary function of education.

Ideally speaking, It is through education that members of society.” particularly the youth, come to understand the working of society. Education should enable the youth to improve the working of society, Seen in this light, the purpose of education is not just to help students acquire degree and obtain jobs. It the society is not organized properly, jobs become difficult to acquire degrees lose their meaning and education  becomes a national waste as it is happening in many countries in the mid today. Education, properly speaking, should develop a spirit or inquiry and rational thinking in the youth so as to enable them to understand the society and change it wherever it is found lacking.

Ever since India attained independence in 1947, we have been following, for inexplicable reasons, Lord Macaulay system of education. This system has since lost its relevance to the changed socioeconomic scenario in the Country. As 18 well known, Lord Macaulay was an ardent champion if the British Raj Therefore it was natural for him to devise an Educational system for India which would not foster real awareness and Education. It aimed at producing loyal, committed babus to cater to the Clerical needs of the British colonial Government of India.

But it was essential for the Indian administrators to change this educational system. A different system more suited to the requirements if an independent progressive India had to be evolved From time to time, seminars or symposia were held to discuss the question of educational reforms and suggest an ideal educational system However, owing much could be achieved in this behalf. Syllabi continued to be theoretical in nature, and irrelevant to the socio-cultural and economic on texts. Teaching methods and system of examination continued to be obsolete. The result was that our educational institutions and universities. instead of being citadels of learning and enlightenment, became dens of unrest and frustration. Our students became irresponsible, and directionless mob, out to destroy the very fabric of society. Instead of contributing to the progress of the nation, they became, to a large extent, a burden on re nations economy and society.

The first policy document on education was adopted in 1968, by the Government after Independence. The National Education Policy, l968 {med to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration. It called for radical reconstruction of the, educational system and for greater attention to science and technology, the cultivation of moral values and closer relation between education and the life of the people.

However, even the Government admits that the general Formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy did not get translated him a detailed strategy of implementation. Some achievements since 1968 listed by the Government are (a) acceptance of a common structure of education throughout the country and the introduction of the 10 plus 2 plus 3 system by most States; (b) laying down of common system of studies for boys and girls; (c) incorporation of science and mathematics as compulsory subjects; (d) restructuring of the courses at under-graduate level; (e) setting up of centers of advanced studies for postgraduate education and research.

A new draft National Policy on Education was approved by Parliament in May 1986. The Programme of Action to-implement the new policy was adopted by the Government in August 1986.

The new education policy is broadly based on a document called. “A challenge of education-a perspective” laid by the then Education Minis in Parliament on 20 August 1985. Education “in India, says the new education policy document, stands at cross-roads today. Neither normal expansion nor the existing pace and nature of improvement can meet the needs of the situation. The catalytic action of education in the complex and dynamic process of our country needs to be planned meticulously and executed with great sensitivity. Life in the coming decades, it points out is likely to bring new tensions together with unprecedented opportunities. To enable the people to benefit in the new environment will require new designs of human resource development. The coming generations should have the ability to internalize new ideas constantly and creatively. They have to be imbued with a strong commitment to human values and social justice. All these call for better education, stresses; the document.

The new Education Policy. 1986 calls for a National System of Education in which all students, irrespective of caste creed location or sex, shout have access to education of a comparable quality. The system will be based on a national curricular framework which contains a common core along with other components that are flexible. In higher education technical education in particular steps will be taken to facilitate interregional mobility by providing equal access to every Indian of requisite merit, regardless of his origins.

The policy gives importance to removal of women’s illiteracy-anti obstacles inhibiting their access to and retention” in, elementary education. Major emphasis will be laid on women’s participation in vocational technical and professional education at different levels. The central focus the policy in the educational development of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in their equalization with the non-SC and ST population at all stages and levels of education, in all areas and in all the four dimensions rural male and female, urban male and urban female. The policy also aims to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the general community as equal partners to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to lace the with Courage and confidence. The policy outlines a vast programme of adult and continuing education through establishing centre’s of continuing education in rural and urban areas post-secondary education institutions wider promotion of books, etc radio, television and films; distance learning programmes; need and interest based vocational training programmes, etc.

The new thrust in elementary education emphasizes two aspects: (1) universal enrolment and universal retention of children upto 14 years of age; and (2) a Substantial improvement in the quality of education. The policy pledges to provide essential facilities in primary schools, including at least two reasonably large rooms usable of all weathers, and necessary toys blackboards, maps charts and other learning material. At least two teachers one of them a woman should be there in every school, the number increasing to one teacher per class as early as possible. To this end, the Operation Blackboard has been launched all over the country to improve primary schools.

The policy also introduces a non formal form of education for school dropouts for children from habitations without schools, working children and girls who cannot attend whole day school. 

In order to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominantly from the rural areas, the government launched in 1985-86 scheme to establish Navodaya Vidyalaya on an average one in each district. These Vidyalayas are fully residential and co educational and provide education in the streams of Humanities, Commerce, Science and Vocational upto +2 level and are affiliated to CBSE. There are at present 359 sanctioned Vidyalayas in the country operating in 30 States/UTs.

The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 accorded high priority to vocationalisation of education at the secondary, stage. The NPE as revised in 1992 set the target of achieving-diversion of 10 per cent of the students at the +2 level to the vocational stream by 1995 and 25 per cent by 2000AD. A Joint Council for Vocational Education (JCVE) was set up in April 1990 for policy formulation and coordination at the national level.

In the field of higher education, provision will be made for minimum facilities and admission into colleges and universities and will be regulated according to Capacity. Courses and programmes will be redesigned and the present affiliation system will be replaced by a freer and more creative association of universities and colleges. Research will get more support the Open University system has been initiated to augment opportunities for higher education. The Indira Gandhi National Open University established in 1985 will be strengthened. 

The policy provides for delinking degrees from jobs for which university degree need not be a necessary qualification its implementation will lead to a refashioning of job specific courses and afford greater justice to those candidates who, despite being equipped for a given job, unable to get it because of an unnecessary preference for graduates the documents explain.

In the area of Technical and Management Education the policy maintain that reorganization should take into account the anticipated scenario by turn of the century, with specific reference to the like changes in the economy, social environment, production and management processes, the rapid expansion of knowledge and the great advances in science and technology. Steps will be taken to make technical and management education cost-effective. The Computer Literacy and Studies in School has been made a centrally sponsored scheme from 1993-94.

The curricula and processes of education will be enriched by culture content in as many ways as possible children will be enabled to develop sensitivity to beauty, harmony and refinement. Linkages will be also promises to make efforts to secure easy accessibility to books 1thall segments of the population.

The policy envisages, reorganization of the methods of recruiting teacher to ensure merit, objectivity and conformity with spatial and functional requirements. The new programmes of teacher-education will emphasis continuing education. District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) will be set up to organize pre-service and in service courses for elementry school teachers and for the personnel working in nonformula and adult education. Selected Secondary  Teacher Training Colleges will be upgraded  to complement the work of the Slate Councils of Educational Research and Training. 

To give the policy a practical shape, lot of funds would be required. The policy says that resources will be raised by mobilizing donations, asking the beneficiary communities to maintain school buildings and supplied of some consumables. Raising fees at higher levels, and by effects: savings by efficient use of facilities.

Institutions involved in research and development of technical at scientific manpower should also mobilise funds by levying cess or charge on the user agencies including Government departments and Entreprerteurs. The Government and the community in general will find funds for programmes like universalisation of elementary education; liquidating“illiteracy, etc.

The Governments strategy to make the new system work consists of (a) better deal to, and the greater accountability of, teachers; (b) provision of improved students services and insistence on observance of acceptable norms of behavior (c) provision of threshold facilities to institutions and (d) creation of a system of performance appraisals of institutions according to standards and norms set at the National or State levels.

The new policy has been criticized on the grounds that (i) The new thrust in the field or universalisation of education is non-formal education. Non-formal education, educationists point out, can never be equivalent to regular schooling. This will create a dual education system. (ii) Navodaya Schools will create further disparities. (iii) The new policy suffers from an elitist bias as it also promotes privatization of education. As a result, one who is able to pay more will get better education as compared to a common person. (iv) Education is sought to be commercialized.  Reduction of subsidies will mean that students will have to finance their own education.


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