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Essay on “Science is the need of the Day” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Science is the need of the Day

POINTS TO DEVELOP

  1. What the given statement implies.

  2. Science has helped humans to progress both materially and mentally – examples.

  3. Mental or spiritual progress, however, is lagging behind material progress.

  4. The scientific method and the rational approach it implies.

  5. Human inability to adopt the scientific temper as compared to its readiness to accept material changes.

  6. Growth of scientific knowledge is so rapid that mental adjustment to the changes it brings about is difficult; the hold of tradition is deep –rooted.

  7. scientific attitude, however, is absolutely necessary to dispel ignorance and backwardness; its spread will bring a rational perspective to bear no social evils and conflict, and could lead to a better world.

When one says that the scientific attitude rather than science is the need of the day, one is emphasizing on the need to develop, promote and imbibe the tendency, spirit and inclination inherent in the inquiry of science than on the mere scientific achievements and inventions. The former pertains to the inner world of the human beings, while the latter to the external. The first reaches out to the significance of the social or human values and norms, while the second is mainly concerned with material progress and prosperity. The view thus expressed assumes relevance today because an avalanche of religious fundamentalism and superstition is threatening to destroy all civilized and orderly life, not only in India but in many other regions of the world.

          Much of the progress that humankind has made till now is associated with  science. Not only material progress but also the mental outlook of humans has been influenced by it. Humans have tried to unveil the mysteries of nature to the fullest extent. Humans have been successful in shortening distances in the world and reached out even beyond. Immense progress has been made in communications systems; satellites have revolutionized our entire life, making possible instant weather forecasts, remote sensing of minerals or even fish, worldwide entertainment and communication. Medicines are now available to mitigate effects of diseases; scourges of the past have been wiped out by scientific development; surgery has reached trouble spots in the heart and even the brain. On a more mundane level, electricity has dispelled darkness and humid heat and made the life of ordinary humans more comfortable. Industry and agriculture have progressed to higher production and productivity levels through scientific knowledge. But is this material progress sufficient for the happiness of humankind? Where is the mental peace and equilibrium of the individual ? why does humanity feel disturbed and threatened?

          Progress is a change purposefully and positively directed and properly conceived. Progress can be judged both by materialistic and moral standards. And there should be a proper balance between the two aspects for progress to be healthy and positive. The glittering civilization of today with all the mechanical advancements constitutes material progress. By moral progress we mean the illumination of the spiritual self of humans and consequently spiritually directed thinking and action. If human beings cultivate fine qualities like sympathy for the sufferers, love for all , upright character and humanistic approach, we say that humans have made moral progress. But, unfortunately, today’s civilization lags behind in moral progress based on the scientific attitude as compared to the great strides made in material progress.

          School children learning science are told that a scientific study includes three major steps: the experiment, the observation , and the deduction. This particular pattern of investigation has emerged after centuries of practice of science, and the scientific attitude lies somewhere behind it.  The experiment is set up to observe a certain phenomenon in several different ways. The experimenter can , in many cases, alter the various operating conditions, or the so-called experimental parameters, to enable him or her to study the outcome in as many situations as possible. Another objective of such experimentation is to eliminate the element of human bias to make the results objective. The result of the experiment may be qualitative or quantitative. In the often necessary to detect a pattern in the observed results. Help is sought from the statistical methods times even statistical methods do not give unambiguous answers. The scientist is then back to the drawing board, designing new and better experiments. The last step is that of deductions, that is , drawing conclusions from the experiment. The scientist is, drawing conclusions form the experiment. The scientist is , of course, not satisfied with drawing conclusions from a solitary experiment. She or he makes mint. The purpose of this exercise is to prompt future predictions. This interplay between theory and observation is what keeps science going.

          We honor science and the scientists for being creative original and stimulating. Science is a humane of endeavors because it depends on cooperation, on people testing each other’s work, and on people taking notice of one other. The wonder is that we are reluctant to adopt these characteristic features of science in various aspects of life, though the peoples of the world are competing with each other in reaping the harvests of science. Indeed, just as in the case of science progress can be achieved only when the scientific outlook prevails over innate conservatism, so in the case of a society of human beings this outlook acts an as antidote to the evils of prejudice and superstition.

Superstitions are born out of ignorance of how nature functions. Science is dedicated to the unraveling of the mysteries of nature. As a particular mystery is solved , we should expect the superstitions based on it to disappear. Yet, this does not always happen in practice because of the lack of scientific attitude in the typical human being. For example , the early human societies ascribed divine powers to planets. This assumption arose from ignorance of what planets are and how they move. Now that astronomy has answered most of the questions raised about planets by primitive humans, we should expect this assumption to be regarded as groundless. Yet this has not happened. Even in the technologically advance countries the belief in planetary influences persists among sections of even educated classes. Similarly, astrology has been tested to seek a scientific basis for prediction by innumerable research workers on various occasions , and has always been found wanting. Even so, people’s belief in it is almost unshaken.

          Individually , or as part of a larger group, humans have always lived by certain traditional beliefs. These beliefs are inextricably mixed with cultural and religious heritage. Inevitably , conflicts arise whenever the critical appraisal inherent in the scientific temper is applied to these beliefs. Some conflicts arise because the beliefs or the rituals had a rational basis in the olden days but which they no longer possess today. Some rituals has a symbolic meaning in the social ambiance of several centuries ago, but today they have become irrelevant. Also, everywhere in the world conflicts between different belief systems are often with senses. The questions arises: what should one do in case such a conflict arises?

          The rapid inputs from science and technology in the twentieth century have had severe repercussions for human societies the world over. How to adjust to the rapid growth  of knowledge, to the many ways energy can be used to upgrade human existence, to the many effective ways in which one may destroy human existence, to the severe  impact of all this on our natural habitat…? These are questions which perhaps could have been handled had the societies been granted the luxury of ample time. This, unfortunately, has not been the case. The response has to be quick to a rapidly changing scenario. How to absorb the ‘new’ while holding on to the ‘traditional’?

`        on the ‘traditional’ side we have the traditional virtues of the individual’s responsibility to the society, the society’s commitment to ensure the well-being of its members , and jointly the individual and social commitment to preserve the natural habitat. Armed with these virtues, humans can assess what science has to offer ; they can take judicious decisions on what to accept and what to reject. This is where the scientific attitude comes to their help – to weigh all the evidence and then decide what is best. as has happened in  science , occasional ‘wrong turnings’ with false ideas have caused deviations from the path of progress; so many an attempt to decide what is best many lead to wrong decisions. But the self-correcting tendency of science will Thüringen and we need to go back and rectify  the mistake. The scientific temper guides us towards recognizing this eventually, and allows for mid-course corrections.

          The scientific attitude is essentially a critical one – it will probe, analyze, examine  and then decide. Reason is its guiding spirit and questioning existent practices, its basic instinct. Keeping this fact in our made, we can say that the inculcation of scientific attitude may provide a panacea to all the caste, communal, social and even international evils in their true perspective. One can examine, for instance, the practice of untouchability, sati or the contempt for widows in the light of socio-economic history, and realize that their roots are to be found in selfishness, greed  and iniquity rather than divine inspiration. Analysis of blood tells us that there are just four main groups and these have nothing to do with color or race. This understanding should root out racial discrimination. It this rational and questioning spirit – basic to the scientific attitude is encouraged to spread and gain roots in the minds of human beings at large, we could easily find a panacea to earthly ills and conflicts, and encourage a cooperative spirit and collective security for humankind.

          Unfortunately, while science ( with its corollary, technology) is going ahead by lapses if not a steady decline. What Jawaharlal Nehru observed more than half-a-century ago holds true even today: “The impact of science and the a more critical faculty, a weighing of evidence, a refusal today it is strange how we suddenly become overwhelmed by tradition, and the critical faculties of even intelligent men cease to function …..”.

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