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Essay on “National Statistics Day – 29 June” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

National Statistics Day – 29 June 

In recognition of the notable contributions made by Professor Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in the fields of economic planning and statistical development    in the Post – independent era, the Government  of India has decided  to designate 29th June every year, coinciding with his birth anniversary, as the Statistics Day in the category of special Day to be celebrated at the national level.

The objective of this Day is to create public awareness, among the people specially the younger generations for drawing inspiration from (late) Prof. Mahalanobis about the role of statistics in socio- economic planning and policy formulation. This day would be celebrated by organizing events such as, essay/ debate competitions, seminars and lectures on Statistics at national level and regional level.

Mahalanobis – Biography

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (June 29, 1893- June 28, 1972) was an Indian scientist and applied statistician. He is best known for the Mahalanobis distance, a statistical measure. He founded the Indian Statistical Institute, and contributed to large scale sample surveys.         

His father , Prabodh Chandra, was an active member of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj. His mother , Nirobasini, belonged to a family of considerable academic achievements. He graduated in physics in 1912 from the presidency College, Kolkata and  completed Tripos at King’s College, Cambridge and then returned to Calcutta.

Inspired by the Biometrika and mentored by Acharya  Brajendra Nath Seal he started his statistical work and initially  worked on analyzing university exam results, anthropometric measurements on Anglo- Indians of Calcutta and some time. In 1924, when he was working on the probable error in the results of agricultural experiments, he met Ronald Fisher, with whom he later established a long – lasting friendship. He also worked on schemes to prevent floods. 

His most important contributions are related to large scale sample surveys he introduced the concept of pilot surveys and advocated the usefulness of sampling methods. His name is also associated with the  scale free multivariatge distance measure, the Mahalanobis distance. He founded the India statistical institute (ISI) on 17 December , 1931.

In the latter half of his life, he contributed prominently to newly independent India’s five- year plans starting from the second. His variant of Wassily Leontief’s neo- Marxist Input- output model, the Mahalanobis model, was employed in the second five  year Plan, which worked towards the rapid industrialization of India and with other colleagues at his institute , he played a key role in the development of a statistical infrastructure.

He also had an abiding interest in cultural pursuits and served  as secretary to Rabindranath Tagore, Particularly during  the latter’s foreign travels, and also worked at his Visva- Bharati university, for some time. He received one of the highest civilization awards, the Padma Vibhushan from the Government of India for his contribution to science and services to the country.

Even at the age of 78, he was actively involved in research work and discharging his duties as the Secretary and Director of the Indian Statistical Institute and as the Honorary Statistical Advisor to the Cabinet of the Government of India. He died on 28 June 1972, a day before his seventy- ninth bright day.      

Among the prestigious awards bestowed on him were the Weldon Medal from oxford University (1944), Fellow of the Royal Society , London (1945) , Honorary President, International Statistical Institute (1957) and Padma Vibhushan (1968)

Indian Statistical Institute (ISI)

Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), a unique institution  devoted to the research, teaching and application of statistics, natural sciences and social sciences, founded by Professor P.C. Mahalanobis in Kolkata on 17th December, 1931 , gained the status of an Institution of National importance by an act of the Indian Parliament in 1959.

The Headquarters of ISI is located in the northern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata. Additionally, there are two Centres located in Delhi and Bangalore. Research in Statistics and related disciplines is the primary activity of the Institute. Teaching activities are undertaken mainly in Kolkata, Delhi and Bangalore. Offices of the Institute located in several other cities in India are primarily engaged Operations Research’. 

Role of Statistics

Every day, almost everyone is affected in one way or another by the application of statistics. In common usage, the work statistics typically refers to any collection of numerical data. Examples include sports statistics such as batting averages and speed records, vital statistics such as birth and death rates, economic indicators such as unemployment rates and budget deficits, and social statistics such as crime or poverty rates. The popular conception is that statistics quantitative information. As with ideas associated with common sense, this is a misconception, or at least an incomplete conception. In science and related fields, statistical analysis actually has much more to do with.

Origins of statistics

The original use of statistics was to determine the number of citizens subject to taxation and military service. The word statistics is derived from the  term statisticum collegiums (“council of state”) and the Italian word statista (“statesman” or “politician”). The term Statistik was introduced by the German economist and philosopher Gottfried Achenwall (1749),  and originally applied to the analysis of data to be used by government al administrative bodies (the “science of state”, then called political arithmetic in English).

Definition of statistics

It is a collection of methods for planning experiments and obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, analyzing, interpreting, presenting, and drawing conclusions based on the data (Triola and Triola 2006). In this view, statistics is about helping us to have good sense- specifically, good sense in gathering observations or performing experiments and in making sense of them. Statistics is a mathematical science applicable to a wide variety of ac academic disciplines, from the physical and social sciences to the humanities.     

Purposes of statistics

It is convenient to divide the practices of statistics into three basic aspects, usually called data collection, exploratory or descriptive statistics, and inferential or confirmatory statistics. Both descriptive and inferential statistics comprise applied statistics. The methods by which statistical data are analyzed are called statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject. The effective use of statistics as scientific tool requires objectivity in sampling , evaluation, and presentation.

Statistics in Today’s World

Statistics, today is widely employed as a tool in the analysis of problems in   natural, physical and social sciences. In fact there is hardly any branch of science today that does not make use of statistics. With the development electronic devices, such as computers, calculators etc. the cost of analyzing data has considerably gone down. This has led to the increasing use of statistics in solving various problems.

Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins as a service to a state or government. Individuals and organizations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences, medicine, business, and other areas.

Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct, albeit allied, filed, many universities maintain separate departments for mathematics and statistics. Statistics is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology, education, and public health. The usefulness of statistics depends on ability and imagination of the user in applying statistical tool to any particular situation.

Misuse of statistics

Statistics is only a tool, i.e., a method of approach. Tools if property used, do wonders and, if misused, prove disastrous. The same is true of statistical tools. But the fault does not lie with the science of Statistics as such. In fact, statistics like a lump of clay of which one can make a God or a Devil as he pleases.    

Statistics and the State

The concept of State has changed from that of simply maintaining law and order to that of a welfare state. Statistical data and methods are of great help in promoting human welfare programmes. The state  collects statistics on several problems. These statistics help in framing suitable  policies. 

Ministry of Statistics

  1. Statistical Wing
    • Central Statistical Organization (CSO)
    • National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)
    • Computer Centre
  2. Programme Implementation Wing. It has four Divisions, namely,

2.1 Twenty Point Programme Division

2.2 Infrastructure Monitoring Division

2.3 Project Monitoring Division, and

2.4 Member of Parliament local Area Development Scheme Division.       

Central Statistical Organization (CSO)

The Central Statistical Organization is responsible for coordination of statistical activities in the country, and evolving and maintain statistical standards. Its activities include National Income Accounting; conduct of Annual Survey of Industries. Economic Censuses and its follow up surveys, compilation of Index of Industrial Production, as well as Consumer Price Indices for Urban Non-Manual Employees, Human Development Statistics, Gender Statistics, imparting training in Official Statistics, Five Year Plan work relating to Development of Statistics in the States and Union Territories; dissemination of statistical information, work relating to trade, energy, construction, and environment statistics, revision of National Industrial Classification, etc. the CSO is located in Delhi. Some portion of Industrial Statics work pertaining to Annual  Survey of industries is carried out in Calcutta.

National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)

The National Sample (NSS), initiated in the year 1950, is a nation – wide, large – scale, continuous    survey operation conducted in the form of successive rounds. It was established on the basis of a proposal from P.C. Mahalanobis to fill up data gaps for socio-economic planning and policy making through sample surveys.

In March 1970, the NSS was reorganized and all aspects or is work were brought under a single Government organization, namely the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) under the overall direction of Governing Council to impart objectivity and autonomy in the matter of collection, processing and publicity of the NSS data. The National Statistical Commission was set up in 2005 with the aim of improving the country’s statistical system. After the formation of National Statistical Commission, the Governing Council of NSSO has been dissolved from 30.08.2006 and it its place Steering Committee of National Sample Surveys has been formed on 15 December 2006.

The NSSO is headed by the Director General and Chief Executive Officer (DG&CEO) who is responsible for co- ordaining and supervising all activities of the organization and is  assisted by a small secretariat called Co- ordination and Publication Division (CPD). The NSSO has four divisions, namely, Survey Design and Research Division (SDRD), Field Operations Division (FOD), Data processing Division ( DPD) and Coordination & publication Division(CPD). An Additional Director General heads each  divisions  except CPD, which is headed by a Deputy Director General.

Mahalanobis believed that statistics  should be an integral part of the dynamics of national planning. He was acutely aware of national problem and  national resources. He took a keen interest and played a key role in formulating India’s second five – year plan. Mahalanobis’s  contributions to Indian national planning continue to be held in high esteem by economists.                      

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