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Biography of Bharat Ratna “Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman” complete biography for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman


Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, better known as C.V. Raman, one of the most brilliant scientists of the world, was born on 7 November 1888 at Ayyanpettai near Tiruchirapalli in the then Madras State.

Known for his Raman Effect he was India’s most illustrious scientist who placed his country on the scientific map of the globe. He was the first Asian Scientist to bag and also the first among the three to get the nation’s highest honour of Bharat Ratna in 1954.

Reared in an atmosphere of intellectual and scientific pursuit, Raman developed a keen thirst for learning. His early life was marked by scholastic distinction, having passed the Matriculation Examination of Madras University when twelve years old, followed by a spell at Hindu College, Vizagpatnam, Presidency College, Madras, where he secured the University gold medal. While preparing for his M.A. (1907), he was involved in reading Classics of Mathematics and Physics and submitted an original contribution in the Philosophical Magazine, London.

In 1907, Raman for want of proper facilities for following a career in science, sat for and secured the first place in the Finance Service Examination and joined service as Assistant Accountant General at Calcutta at the age of 19. The turning point in his life came when he met Dr. Amritlal. Sarkar, Secretary of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, who allowed Raman to begin his research activities in the laboratories of the Association. Raman now became so deeply involved in his research that his job became secondary. He worked on ‘Surface Tension’ and ‘Propagation of Light’ using the meagre equipment of the laboratories and then published the results in leading journals.

At this time, Sir Asutosh Mukherjee, Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University, noticed the enthusiasm and devotion of this young scientist and requested him to fill the Palit Chair of Physics at the University. Raman gave up his government job and joined as Palit Professor (1917-1933) and built up a school of research in Physics that brought him recognition and honour. “The Indian Journal of Physics” brought out under his guidance became a journal of international renown.

In 1921, Raman went abroad as Palit Travelling Fellow. On his return hebegan work on physical optics. His fame as a scientist was rapidly growing. He was the third Indian to be a Fellow of the Royal Society..(F.R.S.). He observed new lines in the spectrum of scattered light importance o earned it the name of “Raman Effect” which became significant in the studies of the constitution and properties of various substances.

Meanwhile, honours poured upon Raman, from all parts of the globe, the culmination being the Nobel prize for Physics In 1930. In 1993 Raman became Director of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (1933-43). There he founded the Institute of Physics in 1933 and in 1934 the Indian Academy of Science which became a leading research institute in Physics. In 1943 he founded the Raman Research Institute, which was the culmination of his dream. After independence, Raman was made the first National Professor. He received numerous honours and honorary doctorates, from all parts of the world: Knighthood (1929), Mateuchi Medal, Rome (1929), Nobel Prize (1930), Hughes Medal, Royal. Society (1930), Franklin_Medal,Thiladelphia Institute (1951), Bharat Ratna (11954)(” International Lenin. Prize (195,7), Honorary Ph. D., Freiburg University, Honorary D. Sc., from several universities in India and abroad.


He held many prestigious positions both at the national and international spheres : President, Indian Science Congress (1928), President, Indian Academy of Sciences (1934), Fellow of the Royal Society (1924), Corresponding Member, Soviet Academy of Sciences (1947), Foreign Associate, Paris Academy of Science (1949), Honorary Fellow of Several Scientific Academies.

He published several hundred papers in the national and international journals. His valuable publications include : Molecular Diffraction of Light, Mechanical Theory of Bowed Strings and Diffraction of X-rays, Theory of Musical Instruments, and Physics of Crystals. The nation conferred its highest honour Bharat Ratna on this eminent scientist in 1954. Raman passed away on 21 November 1970, at the age of 82. His mortal remains were consigned to the flames in the lawns of Raman Research Institute.

Raman was a born genius combining in him a razor-sharp intellect and an analytical mind. He was a self-made man who achieved international fame through his intrinsic merit and hard work. Apart from being a scientist, Raman was well versed in literary and religious classics. He was also a gifted speaker and would keep his audience spell-bound. He had a sense of humour. He was deeply interested in nature. He had a special love for flowers. Raman’s greatest quality was his single minded devotion to science.


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