Home » Languages » English (Sr. Secondary) » Precis Writing Solved Exercise for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation Classes, Competitive Exams, 11 Precis.

Precis Writing Solved Exercise for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation Classes, Competitive Exams, 11 Precis.

Precis Exercises  

1

Leaving on one side those rich man who are merely fools, let us consider the commoner case of those whose fatigue is associated with strenuous work for a living. To a great extent fatigue in such cases is due to worry and worry could be prevented by a better philosophy of life and a little more mental discipline. Most men and women are very deficient in control of their thoughts. I mean by this that they cannot cease to think about worrying topics at times when no action can be taken in regard to them. Men take their business worries to bed with them, and in the hours of the night, when they should be gaining fresh strength to cope with tomorrow’s troubles, they are going over and over again in their mind problems, about which at the moment they can do nothing, thinking about them, not is a way to produce a sound line of conduct on the morrow. Something of the midnight madness still clings about them in the morning, clouding their judgement, spoiling their temper, and making every obstacle infuriating. The wise man thinks about his troubles only when there is some purpose in doing so; at other times he thinks about things or, if it is night, about nothing at all. It is amazing how much both happiness and efficiency can be increased by the cultivation of an orderly mind, which thinks about a matter adequately at the right time rather than inadequately at all times.

 

 

2

One of the most remarkable facts about water is its power to carry silt or finely divided soil in suspension. This is the origin of the characteristic colour of the water in rain-fed tanks. This colour varies with the nature of the earth in the catchment area and is most vivid immediately after a fresh inflow following rain. Swiftly flowing water can carry fairly large and heavy particles. The finest particles, however, remain floating within the liquid in spite of their greater density and are carried to great distance. Such particles, are of course, extremely small, but their number is also great and incredibly large amounts of solid matter can be transported in this way. When silt-laden water mixes with the salt water of the sea, here is a rapid precipitation of the suspended matter. This can be readily seen when one travels by steamer down a great river to the deep sea. The colour of water changes successively from the muddy red or brown of silt through varying shades of yellow and green finally to the blue of the deep sea. That great tracts of land have been formed by silt thus deposited is evident on an examination of the soil in alluvial areas. Such land, consisting as it does of finely divided matter, is usually very fertile.

 

 

3

One of the matters in which modern morality is most defective is this question of fear. It is true that physical courage, especially in war, is expected of men, but other forms of courage are not expected of them and no form of courage is expected of women. A woman who is courageous has to conceal the fact if she wishes men to like her. The man who is courageous in any matter except physical danger is also thought ill of and the public does what it can to punish the man who dares to flout its authority. All this is quite opposite to what it should be. Every form of courage, whether in men or women, should be admired in a soldier. The commonness of physical courage among young man is a proof that courage can be produced in response to a public opinion that demands it. Given more courage there would be less worry and therefore less fatigue; for a very large proportion of the nervous fatigue from which men and women suffer at present are due to fears, conscious or unconscious.

 

 

4

Time is our tyrant. We are chronically aware of the moving minute hand, even of the moving second hand. We have to be. There are trains to be caught tasks to be done in specified periods, records to be broken by fractions of a second machines that set the pace and have to be kept up with. Our consciousness of the smallest units of time is now acute. To us, for example, the moment 8.30 a.m. means something very important, If it happens to be the starting time of our daily train. To our ancestors, such an odd eccentric instant was without significance, it did not even exist. In inventing the locomotive, Watt and Stevenson were part inventors of time. Another time-emphasizing entity is the factory and its dependent, the office. Factories exist for the purpose of getting certain quantities of goods made in a certain time. The factory is a device for making workmen hurry. The machine revolves so often each minute; So many movements have to be made, so many pieces produced each hour. Result : the factory worker is compelled to know time in its smallest fractions. In the hand-work age there was no such compulsion to be aware of minutes and seconds.

 

 

5

Fear of public opinion, like every other form of fear, is oppressive and stunts growth. It is difficult to achieve any kind of greatness while a fear of this kind remains strong and it is impossible to acquire that freedom of spirit on which true happiness consists, for it is essential to happiness and not from the accidental tastes and desires of those who happen to be our neighbours is no doubt less than it was. But there is a new kind of fear, namely the feat of what newspapers may say. This is quite as terrifying as anything connected with medieval witch-hunts. When the newspapers chooses to make a scapegoat of some perhaps quite harmless person, the results may be very terrible. This is too grave a matter to be treated with disdain by the individual who is its victim, and whatever may be thought of the great principle of the freedom of the Press. I think the line will have to be drawn more sharply than it is by the existing libel laws and anything will have to be forbidden that makes life intolerable for innocent individuals, even if they should happen to have done or said things which, published maliciously, can cause them to become unpopular. The only ultimate cure for this evil is, however, an increase of toleration on the part of the public.

 

6

There is only one way to learn social habits : by living a life in which such habits automatically develop. Live in a society and in most cases you will become a social being. That is the secret of the British boarding school, hitherto the finest factory of citizenship in existence. Boarding schools, like everything else, have their defects, but they do train people to be members of a society; in them the egoist and careerist are discouraged; the individualist discovers the existence of other pebbles on the beach and learns how to fit in with them. A boy finds himself a member of something greater than himself and learns loyalty and service to it. These are the qualities of the good citizen. Unfortunately, in England we have given this or any other training to only a tiny minority and have turned 70 per cent of the population out on the world at fourteen. The miracle is that they are in general so good; for their defects we are more to blame than they. We should give to the many some equivalent of the training that we have given to a few. Then we need have no fears for democracy. We are beginning to give such a training. Let me mention some instances and suggest some possibilities. First in time and high in importance is the nursery school. Then the day school, through societies and common activities, makes its contribution, though in the nature of things it can do much less than the boarding school.

  

7

The real problems for me remain problems of individual and social life, of harmonious living, of a proper balancing of an individual’s inner and outer life, of an adjustment of the relations between individuals and between groups, of a continuous becoming something better and higher, of social development of the ceaseless adventure of man. In the solutions of these problems the way of observation and Precise knowledge and deliberate reasoning, according to the method of science, must be followed. This method may not always be applicable in our quest for truth, for art and poetry and certain psychic experiences seem to belong to a different order of things and to elude the objective methods of sensing truth and reality. They are necessary even for the purposes of science. But always we must hold to our anchor of precise objective knowledge tested by reason and even more so by experiment and practice, and always we must beware of losing ourselves in a sea of speculation unconnected with the day-to-day problems of life and the needs of men and women. A living philosophy must answer the problems of today.

 

8

The excessive airs which those people give themselves, founded on the ignorance of us unmarried people, would be more offensive if they were less traditional. We will allow them to understand the mysteries belonging to their own craft better then we, who have not had the happiness to made free of the company : but their arrogance is not content within these limits. If a single person presumes to offer his opinion in their presence, though upon the most indifferent subject, he is immediately silenced as an incompetent person. Nay, a young married lady of my acquaintance, who, the best of the jest was, had not changed her conditions above a fortnight before, in a question on which I has the misfortune to differ from her, respecting the properest mode of breeding oysters for the London market, had the assurance to ask with a sneer, how such an old Bachelor as I could pretend to know anything about such matters.

9

‘Of making books there is no end’, complained the preacher and did not perceive how highly he was praising letters as an occupation. There is no end, indeed, to making books or experiments, or to travel or to gathering wealth. Problem gives rise to problem. We may study for ever, and we are never as learned as we would. We have never made a statue worthy of our dreams. And where we have discovered a continent, or crossed a chain of mountains, it is only to find another ocean or another plain upon the farther side. In the infinite universe there is room for our swiftest diligence and to spare. It is not like the works of Carlyle, which can be read to an end. Even in a corner of it, in a private park, or in the neighbourhood of a single hamlet, the weather and the seasons keep so deftly changing that although we walk there for a lifetime there will be always something new to startle and delight us.

 

 

10

Bores are happy largely because they have so much to tell and come so well out of it; but chiefly because they can find people to tell it to. The tragedy us, they can always find their listeners, me almost first. And why can they ? Why can even )notorious bores always be sure of an audience ? The answer is, the ineradicable kindness of human nature. Few men are strong enough to say. ‘For Heaven’s sake go away, you weary me’. Bores make cowards of us all, and we are left either to listen and endure or to take refuge in craven flight. We see them in the distance and turn down side streets or hasten from the room. One man I know has a compact with a page boy, whose duty it is, whenever my friend is attacked by a certain bore in the club, to hasten up and say he is wanted on the telephone. An ingenious device, but it must not be worked too often; because my friend, though he can stoop to deceit and subterfuge, would not for anything let the bore think that he was avoiding him; would not bring grief to that complacent candid face. For it is one of the bore’s greatest assets that he has a simplicity that disarms. Astute, crafty men are seldom bores, very busy men are seldom bores.

11

Silence is unnatural to man. He begins life with a cry and ends it in stillness. In the interval he does all he can to make a noise in the world, and these are few things of which he stands on more fear than the absence of noise. Even his conversation is in great measure a desperate attempt to prevent a dreadful silence. If he is introduced to a fellow-mortal, and a number of pauses occur in the conversation, he regards himself as a failure, a worthless person, and full of envy of the emptiest headed chatter box. He knows that 99 percent of human conversation means no more than the buzzing of a fly, but he longs to join in the buzz, and to prove that he is a man and not a network figure. The object to conversation is not, for the most part, to communicate ideas : it is keep up the buzzing sound. There are, it must be admitted different qualities to buzz : there is the even buzz that is as exasperating as the continuous ping of a mosquito than a mute. Most buzzing fortunately is agreeable to the ear, and some of it is agreeable even to the mind. He would be a foolish man, however, who waited till he had a wise thought to take part in the buzzing with his neighbours. Those who despise the weather as a conversational opening seem to me to be ignorant of the reason why human beings wish to talk. Very few human beings join in a conversation in the hope of learning anything new. Some of them are content if they are merely allowed to go on making a noise in other people’s ears, though they have nothing to tell them except that they have seen two or three new plays or that they had bad food in a Swiss hotel. At the end of an evening during which they have said nothing at immense length they justly plume themselves on their success as conversationalists.

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