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Essay on “United Nations Organization(U.N.O)” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

United Nations Organization(U.N.O)

Essay No. 01

The U.N.O. was formed in 1945 after the end of the Second World War. After the bitter experience of two world wars in 25 years, the necessity for forming a United National Organization, with greater powers than the League of  Nations, was discussed first at Dumbarton Oaks Conference in October, 1944.  It was finally put into shape by the delegates of 51 nations assembled at San Francisco of the world are it members. Every year 24th October is celebrated as the U.N. Day throughout the world. The headquarters of the U.N. is in New York.

The U.N.O  is a committee of nations. The original need was for world body to strive and keep peace in the world after the end  of the Second World War. The brains behind the big move were the Big Three- Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. A conference was called at San Francisco which was attended by all the Allied Powers. It prepared a charter of international peace- the Atlantic Charter. Ironically enough, the Atlantic charter was hammered home on the Pacific coast of San Francisco! The official languages of the U.N.  are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. The working languages English and French only.     

The first committee of the U.N.O was the Security Council. It had five permanent members – the U.S.A., Russia, United Kingdom,  France and Nationalist China – who were equally vested with the right of veto over any questions, so that unless and until all these five powers agreed upon a question, it  could not be carried through in the Security Council. That precedent continues right up to now. Only that China is not the Communist China represented there, but the China and the Unseating of Formosa has been one of the most burning topics in the U.N.O.

The other units of the U.N.O are the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council , the International Court of justice and Trusteeship Council. Each member – nation is represented in the General Assembly but the Security of Council has only 11 members of which the five are permanent and the rest elected by the General Assembly by rotation.

Another wing is the International Court of Justice appointed by the General Assembly at the Hague. One of the most popular wings of the U.N.O.  is U.N.E.S.C.O. (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) which is headquartered at Paris. The U.N.O. itself has its headquarters at New York.          

The U.N.O shares great responsibilities without having equally great powers. It has done a solid job in Korea, Indo- China, Suez and the Congo in preventing major international conflict and maintaining peace and order in the afflicted countries. The biggest achievement of the United Nations since it’s existence is that it has prevented the repetition of the holocaust of Second World War, which left an estimated 30 million people dead. It has successfully intervened in regional and global conflicts to stop the outbreak of another war. The Indo- China War, the Arab- Israel War and the super  power confrontation in Cuba in 1961 bear ample testimony to the significant role played by the United Nations in its peace keeping efforts. Indian troops have played a great part in the all these theaters of conflict and  clash. In other fields, the U.N.O has equally proved beneficial to humanity. It is trying to give man freedom from ignorance and disease also. Various UN agencies such as  UNESCO and ILO,  have contributed a good deal in alleviating the lot of the world’s unprivileged people. The UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) and UN peace Keeping forces have brought succor to millions of people affected by  regional conflicts and wars.

It has been proposed that the UNO should have an army of its own and it should also be entrusted with  legislative powers for the whole world. But this dream is still to be fulfilled. The U.N.O has become a hot – bed of politics. Only the sanity in the world leaders can save this organization as well as the humanity.

 

Essay No. 02

 

The United Nations Organisation

 

The United Nations Organisation (UNO), the world-body, was established on October 24, 1945 after the Second World War. It was set up mainly for the prevention of future wars with its headquarters at New York (U.S.A.) and the European office at Geneva. In the beginning there were 51 States who had opted its membership but now the number of member nations has risen to 159.

The aims and objectives of the U.N. are:

(i) To maintain international peace and security.

(ii) To develop friendly relations among nations based on the principle of equal rights and self-determination of all people.

(iii) To help solve international problems—economic, social, cultural and humanitarian.

 (iv) To promote respect for human rights, dignity and freedom.

The U.N. believes in the principle of sovereign equality to all member States. It believes that all member States shall settle their disputes by negotiations and peaceful manners. The member States shall refrain from any threat or use of force against the political independence, or territorial integrity of any other State. The member States will not render any assistance to a State against which the U.N. has taken action. The U.N. will not intervene in any matter which is essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State.

The membership of this World body is open to all peace-loving countries who believe in the aims and objects of the Organisation. New members are made on the recommendations of the Security Council. Members can be expelled or suspended in the same fashion. There are six main organs of the U.N.: (1) General Assembly, (2) Security Council, (3) Secretariat, (4) Economic and Social Council, (5) Trusteeship Council, and (6) the International Court of Justice.

The General Assembly, consisting of the representatives of all the member countries, meets every year for couple of months. Every country has only one vote but can send 5 delegates. Every vote has equal importance irrespective of the size, population, etc., of a member country. All important issues decided by the General Assembly needs a two-third majority, but in ordinary matters simple majority is enough.

Next is Security Council. It is the executive body of the U.N. It is responsible for maintaining the world peace and security. Its five permanent members are: U.K, U.S.A., U.S.S.R., France and China. The 10 non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for two year term. The five permanent members have veto power and its resolution can be passed only unanimously. Its presidency is held for one month in rotation by representatives of its member countries in alphabetical order. Since the permanent member States have veto power, the votes of non-permanent member States do not carry the same weight. The non-permanent members include five from Afro-Asian countries, two from Latin-American countries, two from European countries and one from East European countries. The Security Council functions almost all the 12 months of the year. Its session can be called at 24 hours notice. Its decision requires only nine votes out of fifteen including five those of the permanent members.

The Secretariat of the U.N., headed by the Secretary General, is responsible for the smooth functioning of every department of the organisation. The Secretary General is appointed for a term of five years by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. He is responsible to implement the decisions taken by the Security Council and the General Assembly. He can bring to the notice of the Security Council any matter which he thinks is a threat to the world peace and security.

The Trusteeship Council is responsible for the supervision and administration of Trust Territories placed under its jurisdiction. The Trusteeship Council looks after the interests of people of territories which are not yet fully self-governing.

The Economic and Social Council looks after the world economic, social, cultural, health and other such matters. The Council makes studies in respect of world economic, social, cultural educational, health and such other related matters and then presents a report to the General Assembly with its recommendations. It has 54 members which are elected for a three year term. One-third of its members retire annually. It functions through its ,12 commissions.

International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of  the U.N. It consists of 15 judges who are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of nine years. The court elects its President and Vice-President for a term of three years. No two judges can be from the same country. Its headquarters are at the Hague in Netherlands, but it may have its sitting elsewhere as well wherever it thinks it desirable. All member countries are parties to the court. The member countries or the Security Council may refer any dispute to the Court. The different organs of the U.N. may ask from-Wan advisory opinion on any legal matter. The judges of the court are elected on the basis of their legal qualifications and experience and not on their nationality.

Besides these above organs of the U.N., there are many other specialised Agencies like I.L.O., F.A.O., UNESCO, I.C.A.O., W.H.O., UNICEF, I.M.F., etc., to help this World body achieve and implement its objectives and schemes. These Agencies being concerned with all the basic, economical, cultural and educational problems of the world play a significant role in promoting international cooperation and in improving the living standards of the people of the world. These Agencies are doing an immense good to mankind in such areas as economic development, human rights, international trade, care of refugees, education, agriculture, health, housing, child and mother care, family planning, etc. Thus, the allegation that UNO is a useless organisation is not true. No doubt it has not been able to maintain the world peace to the extent it was expected, but it is helpless because it has simply a moral authority and power of persuasion.

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