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Essay on “Population Problem” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.









Essay No. 01

                         “No country can be overpopulated if there is work for everyone”.

                           —–Jawahar Lal Nehru

        Over-Population is one of the numerous problems facing India.  It is a burning question of the day.  It has been engaging the attention of the public and the press for a pretty long time.  Much has been said and written about this problem of ever increasing numbers. During the last century, Malthus, a well-known economist; had stated in his famous essay on population that population increased at a much faster rate than food supply.  Malthus seems  to be quite true if we look at the conditions prevailing in our country to- day.

        India occupies only 2.4 percent of the total land area of the world but the population of the country is 16 percent of the total global population.  According to the 1991 census, the population of India had crossed the 882 million mark. What is more, it is still increasing at an alarming rate.  It is rising at the rate of about one million heads every month.  According to 2001 Census, the population of India crossed the 1000 million mark.  This crossing of the billion mark has shaken the government and the people of India to the bones.  Since 1947, the population of India has increased by 360 millions.  This means we have added an entire population of the erstwhile USSR. Every year, the increase in India’s Population equals the population of Australia.  The situation is just staggering.  The production of food cannot keep pace with the alarming increase in numbers.

        The causes of this problem are not very far to seek.  Ours is a hot country.  So we have a high birth rate.  The boys and girls of our country grow and mature sexually at an early age.  Early marriages are common even today, especially in the rural areas.  Moreover, the birth of a baby is supposed to be the work of God. Illiteracy and ignorance are still rampant Bog families still carry prestige with them.  So the birth rate is quite high.  On the other hand, medical facilities have increased a lot since independence.  It has led to decrease in the death-rate.  The population is, therefore, increasing at a terrific speed.  Last but not the least, there is a lack of the means of recreation for the masses.  This and many other social factors are at work.  They account for this serious problem facing the country.

        The problem of ever increasing numbers must be solved on a top priority basis.  Unless it is solved our Five Year Plans cannot raise our standard of living.  No plan for employment can succeed in its absence.  The food problem will remain as it is.  So, for the future prosperity of the nation, every effort must be made to solve it.

        A planned population control programme should be launched to check this phenomenal growth in population in our country.  The first step, of course is the education of the people.  Their whole mental outlook must be changed.  They have to realize that it is a sin to have a large family.  Besides this, an improvement in the economic condition of the people will also bring down the birth rate.  Family planning schemes should be made popular.  Attractive incentives should be given to those couples who come forward to plan their families.  Those who refuse to all in line should be suitably penalized and discouraged.  Medicines, operations and other devices, that help in checking the birth-rate should be made available to all.  They should not be limited to cities only.  They must reach the rural India.

        With the crossing of the billion mark, the planners in the Government of India have once again started thinking of steps that can be taken of control population in the country.   A suggestion has been made that the country should declare a two-year baby holiday.  It has also been suggested that the one-child family norm should be adopted for with.  Punitive measures are also being thought of to curb this population explosion.  No hard decisions have so far been taken.

        To sum up, population control is a crying need of the hour. It is a problem that concerns each citizen of our country.  If we do not plan our families, we might perish one day.


Essay No. 02


Population Problem


India is a big country, but so are her problems. Population is one of these problems. The present population explosion and baby-boom is a very serious problem. It is becoming more and more alarming day by day. The rapid growth of population in India has nullified most of our achievements in the fields of economics, industrialisation, employment generation, planning and development. The phenomenal increase in our population has left far behind ‘our developmental and technological gains. With the result that there is no check on increase in poverty, misery, diseases, dissatisfaction, frustration, unemployment and illiteracy. Even the bare necessities of life are being denied to the people, and millions and millions of citizens are living under the line of poverty. In spite of our planned development and scientific progress, the spectre of starvation has been staring the masses.

The reasons behind this rapid growth of our population are too obvious to be ignored. Early marriage, great fertility in Indian women, decline in the rate of mortality because of modern facilities in medicine, surgery and health care, illiteracy and lack of proper education in family planning, etc., are some of the major causes of the problems. Though child marriage has been banned, yet it prevails as a social custom in many states and every year thousands of child marriages are performed before the very eyes of the custodians of the law. The tropical climate of the country helps the high degree of fertility among Indian women. Here a girl of 15-16 years old is mature enough to deliver a child if married. People in India still consider children as divine gifts. Most of the people in villages and slums in the cities are totally unaware of the evil consequences of a large and unplanned family. The people in rural areas, being ignorant and superstitious, believe in divine dispensation in the moulding of a family and refuse to adopt the measures of family planning.

The Malthusian spectre has been haunting India in spite of our family planning programme and population policy. According to Malthus population increases in geometrical progression while resources of sustenance increase only in arithmetical progression. Malthus would have been happy to see his theory come true in India, had he been alive. By the turn of this century we shall have a population of 1000 million. Our growth of population at the rate of 2% is really alarming. Every minute we have about 45 additional mouths to feed. The longevity and falling death rate further aggravates our population problem. According to the estimates of the demographers, with the present rate of growth in population, India would soon become the most populous country in the world and China would be relegated to the second place. The baby-boom in India reduces the quality of life and increases the problems of unemployment, health, family-welfare, housing and many such others. The chronic problem becomes even worse because of illiteracy and ignorance. People in rural India frequently indulge in sex as a diversion without using the means of contraceptives and family planning.

To fight this danger of ever-increasing population some strict and urgent measures should be taken. More funds should be allocated for family planning, mother and child care and birth control programmes under the Five Year Plan. More and more sterilization facilities coupled with increased monetary incentives should be provided in the villages and towns. Child-marriages should be dealt with a heavy hand and marriage registration should be made compulsory. Without registration no marriage should be considered legal. As far marriages and divorces are concerned, there should be a uniform civil code, and no discrimination should be exercised on the basis of religion, etc.

A mass propaganda and education programme should be launched through radio, T.V. and the press to educate the masses as regards the many advantages to be had from family planning, birth control and late marriages. If the present rate of birth does not come down in near future, it would be disastrous for the country, and then ultimately we would be constrained to resort to such unpleasant means as compulsory sterilisation. It is better that we use more and more sterilisation, loops, condoms, oral contraceptives, etc., to curb the menace of rapid growth in population before we are forced to such drastic steps such as compulsory sterilization, etc.


Essay No. 03


Population Problem of India


Population has always had the tendency of growing but, as long as it is within the limits of acceptability and management, it is very welcome. However, in India as we all know, the growth of population is all proportions to its other achievements.   

India is the most thickly populated country of the world. second only to China. This population growth if left unchecked will automatically allow absolutely no impact on the development of the country, in any other sphere. No matter how many and how vast our development programmes may be, this disproportionate growth of population will nullify it all. For instance, if a home is big enough for four people to live in very comfortably and the population rises to six. When the home is big enough for six, the population becomes eight and hence goes on and on. This would obviously mean that, never can there be entire comfort, as, when comforts are increased, population to take advantage also increases thus the position remaining the same. The net result of this sort of a situation would be that, there would never be any sufficiency, no matter how much we may achieve. Similarly, when the family income is enough cater to four, the family size rises to six, when it rises to be enough for six, the problem size rises to be eight. This is a question of just simple Arithmetic that is easily understood by all, yet, remains unanswered and unsolved.

In the last fifty years of India’s Independence, this has been the exact position of India. India has undoubtedly made tremendous progress on all fronts but this problem population has just nullified all the achievements if see them in the perspective of the whole country. This makes us feel as though we are just the same as we were fifty years back, and, I dare say this is all just because of the continuously rising graph of population.

If this situation continues, I think, India can never hope to be among the progressive countries of the world, as, all progress is bound to be nought by the disproportionate growth of the population. The Government, the NGOs and above all the individuals, should work together to tackle this problem for, as long as this is not satisfactorily solved there is no end to the dark tunnel of poverty and hunger.

To tackle this Herculean problem we must attack it very methodically. Let us analyse why and where the population growth is maximum, and then attack the virus. The belief of the society that, a son is essential in a family makes several families grow to undesirable and uncouth sizes. Parents don’t stop producing till they get a son Besides this, in rural India where growth is phenomenal the parents do not feel the need for a small family, and they do not seem to feel the burden of the large family. They seem to hold the view that, each child who comes with two hands, is able to fend FOR himself. Hence, no one is a burden on the parents. These parents do not realize that, their children pose problems for the country, if not for the individual family. A problem galore comes ahead with this rising population the problem of child labour. The child trafficking problem, and several other problems take birth due to the little ones taking to job seeking the parents feel that, they are earning for themselves so, no problem is there for the society and the country. However this is not true for, it is these rural children seeking for employment that leads to the exploitation of children in the urban areas. And the sad part of it all is that, the rural adults do not understand this.

The layman’s solution to this magnum problem is enlighten the village folk to the necessity and advantages of having a small family, and few children who can be brought up so well that they become good citizens of the country and contribute to the development of India However, if after much explanation and even cajoling, the rural people do not understand the magnitude of the problem, they should, I dare say be forced into family planning with several incentives and punishments for their activities in family planning process.


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  1. mushrraf ali says:

    According to me these type of essay are not only for exams, but also for making the people aware and to save the earth too.

  2. zoya kaira says:

    It was better to write it in paragraph

  3. sajnani lakhan v says:

    it is not only an essays ..but it is a thought which is..very important to
    …develop in all human being ..whole concept is ..clear …nice one…thanks

  4. Sukanya dixit says:

    Really great ….
    It’s too helpful for me

  5. MANOJ says:

    Thanks to write on this topic.
    concept is very clear
    thanks a lot !!

  6. Rohma erum khan says:

    Thanks for giving this message to us that be safe from this population problem. I am from nepal

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