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Essay on “Corruption in Public Life” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

Corruption in Public Life

Essay No. 01

POINTS TO DEVELOP

1. Corruption in public life bothers everyone.

2.Meaning of corruption in public life.

  1. Not a new phenomenon.
  2. Standards of morality have consistently gone down in politics, bureaucracy, and law corrupt practices.
  3. Every field imbued with corrupt practices.

6.Causes of corruption and their possible remedies.

 

If two or more persons meet and start talking about the present society of India, they soon come to the conclusion that every system, every institution of India is infested with corruption. Corruption has become so common in public life that people can now hardly think of  public life without linking it with corruption.

But what does corruption actually mean? Corruption means  perversion of morality, integrity, character or duty out of mercenary motives(e.g., bribery) without regard to honour , right or justice. In public life, a corrupt person is one who bestows undue favour on some one with whom he has monetary or other interests (e.g., nepotism). Simultaneously, those who genuinely deserve those things as their right remain deprived.

Corruption in public life is not a modern phenomenon. It was prevent in the political and civic life of even Maura period as has been discussed by Chanakya in the  Arthashasatra. Similarly, during the  later Mughal period  when debauchery was perhaps at its peak and when the so-called mighty Mughal rule did not extend beyond even of the Great Mughals such as Mohammad ‘Rangeela’ themselves indulged in all sorts of corruption that included taking bribes and giving bribes to the powerful nobles to seek their armed support against their enemies. Corruption reached new heights during the British period . The British officers posted in India on the whole were corrupt. But even more corrupt than them were their Indian agents, such as the notorious ‘ gomasthas’ who made lots of illegal money by clandestinely selling ‘ dastaks’  to those who wished to indulge in unfair trade practices. But it is only recently that corruption has become rampant in out public life and caught public attention. Unfortunately, people no longer protest against corrupt practices, fight injustice or express any shock when big scandals are exposed . 

Most of the Indian politician s nowadays are anything  but honest. Once they come to enjoy the fruits of power, they leave no stone unturned to make hay while the sun shines. Record   show that in India, from time to time , . a large number of big and small politician are caught on the wrong foot: while some are found guilty of making unlawful money through dubious means, other corrupt politicians are found giving lucrative government contracts to those undeserving people and parties who fulfil their greed for money and other worldly desires. Incidentally, in some of the instances ,when even after cases are filed in courts against these corrupt ministers and politicians, they continue to firmly remain in seats of power. Surprisingly , the common citizens do not punish them by not  returning them to power the next time. They instead continue to vote for these very politicians ignoring their stained record of blatantly misusing and virtually looting the Indian taxpayer’s hard-earned money.

Corruption is not a uniquely Indian phenomenon; it is witnessed all over the world in nations such as USA, Japan, and Italy among others. In India, like elsewhere, various type of corruption are to be found. Besides bribery, nepotism, theft  and wastage of public money, dereliction of duty is also form of corruption commonly found in the Indian scenario. As a matter of fact, from the time one is born in a hospital to the time one form or the other age, various shades of corruption in one form or the other age, various shades corruption in one form or the other develop one. Favouritism, one of the most widely practised  from of corruption in India , exists in practically every field; it ignores the suitability of worthy candidates for  appropriate jobs in favour of less deserving and less meritorious candidates. Blatant negligence is another noteworthy type of corruption. Government officials and police, not to mention doctors and  even teachers, are often found negligent towards the people and this tortures the ordinary citizen no end. Negligence by doctors in government hospitals and even reputed private nursing homes even leads to the death of unsuspecting patients . The situation in the police force is much worse. The Indian police force is one of the most corrupt in the entire world . For even getting  routine FIRs registered on has to grease the palms of the corrupt an greedy SHOs. Educational system in India is also infested with corrupt officials and administrators who make a mockery of the sanctity of the hallowed precincts of educational institutions to make a fast buck . without giving hefty donations, it is tough, perhaps impossible, to get admission in many a good educational institute in India . Even the judiciary in India, of late, has come in the grip of corrupt elements who pull out all stops to  sabotages justice. It is said , rightfully so, that in India corrupt elements stalk people at all stages and in every field of  life . Various reasons are given for the existence and growth of corruption in public life.

Given the vast size and population of India and the poor economic infrastructure, most of the things required  by ordinary citizens in the course of their daily lives and activities are in short supply. corruption creeps in to jump a long queue, get a necessity in short supply, be served with minimum waste of time (time, after all, is money, as some say). In  a growing environment of consumerism, almost everyone wants a little more then what he/ she earns, or have legally, so , the side money made by public servants for doing their public duty a little more quickly or to favour one person over another. Then ,in a morally vitiated atmosphere , public office and service is blatantly used for illegal(or at least questionable) ends to support the claims of criminals in favour with politicians.

In the Indian scenario, corrupt practices in the institution of elation are a prime source of corruption, with political parties at the root of the evil. It captures the power structure by corrupt means and perpetuates it down the line, engulfing law enforcing agencies in the process as well.

Economic forces too lead to corruption . Given the  present rate of inflation the ordinary Indian – the  fixed salaried man- finds it quite impossible t maintain his family with his sub marginal income and save a bit. Those who earn enough to meet a minimum standard of life and gave some to spare are drawn towards items of consumerist living and constantly find incomes inadequate. Corruption again is an attractive proposition.

Again , anyone interested in real estate will first have to deal with a seller who is averse to showing the correct price on the document, to avoid capital gains tax. To avoid unreasonably high stamp duties and registration charges, even otherwise honest people are tempted to show smaller sums for a deed. There are hundreds of instances of laws and rates inducing corruption.

Dr Upendra Baxi says, “ The criminogeneity of corruption may entail more than bribery offences between the giver and the receiver and, may spill further to the misappropriation” of bribes, distortions in markets of corruption intimidation and outright violence to remedy unjust enrichment or for rendering of promised services and even possibilities of counter-intimidation and violence”.

Taxes are another provocation and the law should balance between individual  income and expenditure . Standard expenditures incurred by the common people living in cities and towns should be deemed to be fair basis for impositions to direct taxes.

The Sociological School of jurisprudence suggests that people in a given society must have an interest in the production system, be it private or public enterprise . Society  must also control the price level of all production. Therefore,  proper legislation is necessary to fix prices of good to be consumed by a given society. This may be done by the application of the Social Control theory, which is not opposed to free marked economy.

Free market economy does not grant freedom to exploit . Any person may be entitled to participate in the production system of a country but production or a post- production processes must establish a harmonious  relation between the profits and the social policy and reality.

One major cause of corruption among politician and bureaucrats in may countries has been the cast discretion  powers vested in them, especially in relation to the economy. With the launch of the economic reforms process in India since 1991, there has been drastic contraction in these discretionary powers. However, there are still some key areas where discretion is temptingly left with politicians. Although these areas of discretion may get gradually reduced, there will always be some regulatory powers left with the government.

The remedy is to limit the role of the ministers evolve policies and leave the application of policies to individual cases in the hands of an independent commission/authority, in each such area of public interest. Each such commission/authority, may be a statutory body whose members are credentials for a fixed tenure. Conditions of service similar evolved t ensure independence. If  the decision of these commissions are not under the purview of minister but only challenge able in courts, on source of corruption may be eliminated. Besides, it would be advantageous for the economy as a whole, as these commissions would give professional and objective decisions, and the whole process would be transparent.

A major cause of corruption is election expenses which have led to blatant hypocrisy among all parties, especially since 1969 when Indira Gandhi banned company donations to political parties. Our parliamentary constituencies are by far the largest in the world, which entail high teems too are far less advanced , with no local radio or TV stations, and our voters are less educated . So, to fight an election in such a constituency requires immense resources for direct or indirect personal contacts and appearances. Upto a corer of rupees per candidate is required to meet the election expenses. This  money has to be collected mostly from business houses and traders. 

The greed of politicians is matched by the willingness of unscrupulous businessmen who have mastered the art of building up very successful business empires by paying the appropriate political masters. It is not an exaggeration to say that a majority of India business empires have been built on the basis of corruption to exploit the licence-permit-quota Raj which existed till 1992. Because of such implied obligation many honest persons do not want to stand for elections. They know that they cannot afford to discharge their obligations.

The best solution would be for the government to fund election expenses for candidates put up by parties which have a qualifying record of votes in Parliament. Apart from reducing corruption , government funding of elections will enable honest and decent people to enter politics.

It has been pointed out that mega scams exemplify a complete break of the social contract between the citizens and their representatives (who are supposed to safeguard the former’s interest) in democratic India. And this occurs despite constitutional and legal constraints. There appears to be an institutional atrophy and administrative machineries.

It has been suggested that privatisation is the only and the obvious solution to these enormous public deficiencies indeed, one might first think that since businesses are run ‘efficiently’ and since efficiency and accountability are most  certainly  desirable in many fields of public activities, public services should be put in the hands of business people. However, there is no compelling evidence to claim that all business and professional firms are, by definition, efficient. Indeed, several financial scandals in the  private sector are a depressing reminder that they are not .

More importantly as Adam Smith ( who is frequently cited but rarely read ) long ago suggested , the market does not spontaneously emerge; rather, t has to be established and maintained by the state and its administrative machinery. In other words, without the appropriate political institutions, no market economy or  market reform of any significance is possible.

But is it not the same opportunist politicians and their rent-seeking bureaucratic agents who flout contractual clauses with utter contempt for rules an deregulation. And  are also in charge of carrying out market reforms? Under the circumstances, it is difficult to escape the thought that privatisation will be a means by which  these corrupt public figures will gift public resources to their friends , relatives and clients . A study of economic reforms, therefore , cannot exclude and analysis of political restructuring and reform. Indeed , an understanding of the persistence of dysfunctional and corrupt political institutions with an attendant quest for socially beneficial institutional changes is a prerequisite for the market to succeed.

In order to get the political institutions right and to remedy the inefficiencies that mark the bureaucracy , we cannot rely on the market alone, because the present institutional failure is ascribable not to the absence of market discipline  but to the absence or the abrogation of the disciplining force of democracy. For liberalisation is not just a matter of deli censing; it envisages empowering  citizens by replacing . government diktat by competition within a set of fair rules.

Clearly, constitutional and legal checks an balances, though essential , are not sufficient forms of protection  against corruption and bribery. In fact, the actual functioning of political institutions cannot be read off from the Constitution. To ascertain the effective institutional framework, we have to examine instead the overall health of democracy in general and the local structure of governance in particular.

Ultimately, it is the citizens expressed in the form of pressure from below, that can provide the added safeguards required to deter public officials from seizing public assets for private gains. The grassroots-up approach is likely to illuminate our understanding of the direction in which remedial measures are to be sought, such that the lofty promises of the people in power are translated into credible commitments .

The local level community organisations which can function as effective accountability mechanisms include citizens’ watch dog committees, the office of local ombudsman and the Panchayati Raj institutions , among others. The activates of such local democratic units , working with, as well as putting  pressure on the local bureaucracy . can help limit the abuse of executive and administrative power .

A certain sense of hopelessness develops when one considers the poverty of our masses. People who are struggling for survival , do not always exercise political rights and consequently the politicians who fail to keep their promises are not necessarily thrown out of office. To be sure, rights mean little unless supplemented by a minimum of economic wherewithal and security. It also  bears remark that in situations of entrenched inequalities of income, gender and caste ( which prevail in may parts of the country ), local organisations tend to get captured by the powerful and the wealthy.  In such conditions of extreme inequality, the local political structure may suffer from the same institutional failures which afflict the supra-local bodies and thus block the rearrangement of institutions in ways that are conducive to overall development .

So , is there nothing to be done? Positive action, however , is possible: greater public activism and participation at the local level, mobilised through public – regarding community and voluntary organisations, local bodies and political parties, will hopefully work to reduce inequality and thus  enhance the economic   security of the masses; reduced inequality, in its turn, will ensure the fuller exercise of political rights on the part of citizens forcing exercise of political rights on the part of citizens forcing the delinquent public functionaries to become more accountable and responsive to public demands. Ultimately, both efficiency and welfare purposes will be served by aligning market reforms with institution reforms that further democratic values.

Paradoxically , therefore, we may look at the current web of theft and corruption afflicting our polity as a fertile ground for initiative to create a new wave of democratic experiments. In a liberal democracy crooked businessmen and politicians are subject to the rule of law .

Politicians must be accountable tin the years in between elections.  And the law is supposed to ensure this. In fact the law is not permitted to do so because the politicians themselves control the police and prosecutions. There is now an unspoken agreement between parties that , if at all possible, elected legislators will not be prosecuted. So it is no surprise that dacoits want to become MLAs and often do. Today , home ministers at the Centre and states control the police and prosecutions. But when home ministers have become part and parcel of a criminalised political system, they cannot be expected to tackle criminality. We need a new institution independent of home ministers for the purposed . We need a constitutional amendment taking away the power of crime detection and prosecution form the politician , and giving this an independent authority.

The police have two quite distinct functions, maintaining public order and catching criminals. The maintenance of public order (including the checking of terrorism) is inherently a political  task, and must be performed by home ministers. But crime detection (save for certain terrorist acts ) should be independent of the political process-there is no reason for it to be under political control.

To an extent lower tax rates lead to higher tax revenue: as lowering tax rates reduces benefits of  evading tax. However, beyond a certain limit, it is not possible to lower tax rates without adversely affecting the functioning of the government.

Corruption will not be reduces as long as there is a demand for illegal funds. This demand is fuelled not only by politicians requiring election funds, or by those working in the real estate field, but  by social attitudes. If ostentatious spending is a mark of social status, there is always a  spending is a mark of social status, there is always a pressure to spend more then what is possible after paying taxes.

As such, the social environment is basically responsible for the unchecked growth of corruption. It is a sign of corruption to sell adulterated food items and medicine, cheat in examinations, patronise smugglers to get hold of foreign goods cheaply or to finance extravagant activates, so much  that even national security may be compromised on a higher level.

In order to confine corruption to the criminal class. It is imperative that the risks, and costs, of being corrupt are sharpie increased. This cannot be done merely by increasing legal penalties. Corruption must generate such a substantial loss of social status that it makes any monetary  gain appear insignificant. Such a loss of social status will only be possible if common people believe that those who break the rules of civil society deserve to be ostracised. This will need a society where most people, if not all , believe that the rules that prevail are fair.

A democracy will survive only if the rule of law is efficiently and just applied, and public figures act upon a high degree of ethical principles. This is not idealistic, but a ground reality. Also, a democracy, unless made up of an alert, morally firm people capable of influencing public life in the right way , will degenerate into a democracy.

 

Essay No. 02

Corruptions in Public Life

 

Corruption in public life  is  not  a  modern  phenomenon.  It  was  prevalent  in  the  political-and  civic  life  of  ancient  India  as  has  been  discussed  by Kautilya  in  his  Arthshastra.  But,  it  is  only  since  independence  that corruption  has  become  a  chronic  feature  of  our  public  life.  So  Much  so that  people  have  started  treating  it  as  a  normal  feature.  They  no  longer show  righteous  z  indignation  against  corrupt  practices,  fight  injustice  or express  any  shock  when  big  scandals  like  Fairfax  deal  and  Bofors  payoffs  are  exposed.  Today,  corruption  in  particular  has  become   all  pervasive like  the  air  we  breathe,  and  is  noticeable  in  every  aspect  of  life.

Before  India  became  free  she  was  -rifled  by  the  British  with  the  help  of  a small  and  compact body  of  bureaucrats  of  the  Indian  Civil  Service.  These officers,  not  wholly  above  corruption,  helped  the  British  to  maintain  law and  order  and  run  the  administration  efficiently.  Certain Government departments like P.W.D.  and  the  police  were  notorious  for  their  corrupt practices  even  then.  But  corruption  was  not  so  rampant  as  it  is  today,  for the  simple  reason  that  there  were  fewer  Opportunities.

After Independence, we adopted a democratic socialistic pattern of society. Democracy  to  be  successful  must  have  responsible  citizens  who  are  not merely  aware  of  their  rights  but  also  their  moral  duties.  They  owe  it  to themselves  to  put  those  people  in  power  who  have  proven  record  of integrity, public service  and  high  values.  It  was  indeed  sad  when  public trust  in  their  chosen leaders  was  betrayed.  It  did  not  take  very long  for,  People  to  realize  that  the  faith  they  had  piked  in  the  politicians  was    misplaced.  Power, corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely—this maxim of Lord Action was evident from the behavior of our leaders in power.  Whenever  a  scandal  was  exposed, commissions  of  inquiry  were appointed  to  appease  the  public  fury  and  anger.  However,  the complete truth  was  never  made  public.

Opportunities  for  corruption  in  a  developing  country  committed  to  socialist pattern  are  endless.  Undoubtedly,  there  are  rules  and  regulations  governing the  conduct  of  public  servants,  but  these  can  be  twisted  and  interpreted  in accordance  with  the  circumstances.  There  is  widespread  nepotism favoritism  and  manipulation  at  the  ministerial  level  and  among  senior bureaucrats.  Even  a  petty  clerk  in  a  government  office  wields  more  power than  a  more  successful  private  citizen.  It  is  said,  target  even  a  paper moved  in  the  government  offices,  one  has  to  grease  the  -itching  palms  of these  people.

One  of  the  factors  responsible  for  corruption  is  the  conflict  between  the civil  servants  and  politicians.  in  order  to  maintain  his  political  base  arid consolidate  his  position  in  .his  constituency,  a  politician  accommodates many  people–prominent,  wealthy  voters,  influential  party  leaders,  members of parliament,  etc. and  grants  them  concessions  to  gain  their  support.  On the  other  hand  conscientious  civil  servants  are  constantly  thwarted  in  their attempts  to  move  according  to  established  rules.  This  is  one of  the  crucial reasons  why  anti-social  activities  cannot  effectively  be  brought  under control.   Many  hoarders,  smugglers,  tax-evaders,  business  houses;  enjoy political  supp-ort.,  thus  weakening  the  hands  of  the  authorities.  Corruption can  certainly  be  checked,  if  the  civil  servants  do  not  succumb  to  political pressure.  However,  government  should  ensure  that  there  is  no  victimization of  such  honest  officers,  otherwise  it  can  demoralize  them.

There  is  a  widespread  impression  that  many  of  our  politicians  and  party chiefs  place  personal  and  party  interests  above  public  welfare  and  thereby endanger  democratic  values. This is certainly not an exaggeration.  It  is  not the  duty  of  a  legislator  to  work  for  big  business  houses  and  secure  them concessions,  licences  and  contracts  in  the  hope  of  getting  heavy  donations to  party  funds  to  meet  the  election  expenses.  Businessmen, motivated  by self-interest,  do  not  necessarily  donate  because  they approve  of  the  party’s policies  and  programmes.  As political  parties  cannot  function  without  funds, they  are,  therefore,  obliged  to  accept  money  from  these  business  houses  in exchange  for  certain  concessions.  The  only  way  to  eliminate  this  form  of corruption  is  that  election  expenses  should  be  reduced  to  the  minimum and  the  law  should  be  vigorously  enforced.  The  Election  Commission  have now  asked  every  party  to  file  their,  returns  of  income  and  expenditure during  election.

One  reason  why  corruption,  has  increased  to  such  alarming  proportions  is that  though  our  economy  has  made  progress,  price  levels  have  risen  to such  fantastic  height  that   the  purchasing  power  of  the  rupee  is  only 13 paise  today.  It  has  made  the  life  of  fixed  income  group  very  difficult. Simultaneously,  there  has  been  an  astounding  increase  in  the number  of nouveau  riche,  who  flaunt  their  black  money blatantly  living  in  palatial houses  and make  the  middle  classes  feel  helpless. Many of them  cannot resist  the  temptation  of  making  easy  money  to  maintain  their  social  status and  meet  with  the  .increasing  demands  of  their  families  fanned  by  the overnight  availability  of  luxury consumer  goods.  However, this does not,   in any   way  justify  corruption,  but  brings  us  to  the  point  that  we  have forgotten  our  Gandhian  ideals  and  merely  pay   lip  service  to  them.  Had  all our  politicians  led  an  austere  life,  corruption  in  the administration could have  been  greatly  checked,  if  not  altogether eliminated.  Besides, no amount of  revision  in  the  pay  scales  can  satisfy  the  people,  unless  the  abnormal rise  in  the  prices  of  essential  commodities  is  brought under control.

Public  apathy  to  the  rampant corrupt  practices  and  their  growing indifference  to  the  virtual  breakdown  of  law  and  order  machinery  only encourages  the  anti-social  activities.  Instead of organising ourselves to fight corruption, black  marketing,  artificial  shortages,  we  just  express helplessness,  and  give  vent  to  impotent  rage.  It is only the combined effort of  public,  administrative  machinery  and  conscientious  public  servants  which can  help  to  check  the  corrupt  practices.  An alert administration can certainly detect the guilty.  We  cannot  deny  that  occasionally,  under  the  pressure  of public  furore,  the  guilty  are  punished,  but  it  is  equally  true  that  many cases  of  corruption  are,  dropped  under  political  pressure.

Today  corruption  has  become  so  widespread  that  there  is  no  sphere  of national  life  where  it  does  not  exist.  Large  sums  of  money  allocated  for development  programmes, community  projects  or  tribal  welfare,  etc.  are misappropriated  by  corrupt  officials  and  never  reach  the  real  beneficiaries. Comiption has  even invaded  the  educational  sphere.  Large  amounts  of capitation  fee  are  demanded,  deserving  students  are  denied  admissions  to accommodate  less  deserving  candidates  who  have  political   backing.  It  is inconceivable  that  so  much  tax  evasion,  accumulation  of  black  money, smuggling,  hoarding,  black  marketing,  etc.  should  go  on  and  remain undetected  without  the  protection  of  the  authorities.

The  nineties  has  been  the  darkest  period  of  corruption  and  scandals  after independence.  It  started  with  the  multicrore  securities  scam  involving Harshad, Mehta,  some  banks  and  politicians.  There was a spate  of  scams during the regime of  P.V.  Narasimha Rao.  These involved not only Mr.  Rao himself and his kins but most of his ministerial colleagues.  The long  list  includes  Urea  Scam, JMM  Bribery  case, Chandraswarai  cheating case,  Jain Hawala  case,  Fodder  Scandal  of  Bihar,  Dhoti  Purchase  scandal of  Tamil  Nadu,  Sugar  Scandal,  St.  Kitts case, Housing scam, etc.  The  list is  unending  and  so  is  the  list  of  the  beneficiaries  of  these  scams  and scandals.  The  beneficiaries  include  not  only  the  politicians  and  their relations,  but  also  the  bureaucrats,  governors  and  chief  ministers,  both present  and  past.  This  gloomy  picture  shows  that  the  rulers  of  the  country had  no  regard  for  the  poor  people  of  India  but  for  their  own  personal ends.  They  simply  indulged  in  looting  the  country  in  a  manner  not  beard of  even  during-  Britishers  rule  in  this  country.  In mime cases the investigating agencies were slow and selective.  These  have  been  pulled  op by  the  Supreme  Colin  who  have  now  issued  orders  for  expeditious investigations  against  everybody  involved  in  the  scams.

The  Central  Government  has  always  been  aware  of  the  need  to  combat corruption.  In 1964, on the suggestion of Santhanam Committee, the government announced a comprehensive code for Central and State ministers.  It required the people  in  power  to  declare  their  assets  and liabilities,  and  put  certain  restrictions  on  collecting  funds  for  elections. However, as these suggestions were not seriously enforced, things continued to degenerate.  A  major  factor  in  facilitating  corruption  is  the  existing  system of  transfers  and  postings  of  government  servants,  teachers  and  others.  The transfer  system  was  introduced  by  the  British  to  prevent  local  officials from  becoming  too  powerful  by  building  a  circle  of  supporters  over  a period  of  time  in  One  place.  The  threat  of  transfer  was  considered  an  ideal way  of  controlling  the  behavior  of  civil  servants.  Today, transfers have become big business.  Each transfer on request brings money to those in power.  If  a  minister  is  unhappy  with  someone,  he  is  transferred,  to  a  remote corner  of  the  country.  The  bribes  are  paid  from  the  lowest  level  to  the highest  level.  In  fact,  there  are  fixed  rates  to  get  things  moving  in  offices. Of  course  there  are  still  people  who  are  honest.  But  as  long  as  people  are willing  to  offer  bribes,  directly  or  indirectly and  as  long  as  the  needs  of people  go  on  increasing, there  would  be  temptations  to  make  money  on the  sly.

If  we  are  serious  to  eradicate  corruption  from  the  grass  roots  level  then we  have  to  revamp  the  whole  machinery.  here,  the  role  of  our educational institutions  in  inculcating  the  right  values  among  the  youth  of  tomorrow cannot  be  underestimated:  There  is  a  need  for  moral  reawakening  of  our people,  leaders  and  administrators.  In  order  to  lead  a  successful  crusade against  corruption  in  public  life,  both  the  government  and  the opposition should  work  in  a  spirit  of  cooperation  and  not  to  make  political  capital out:  of  corrupt  scandals.  Opposition has a very crucial role to play in a democracy. It should be responsible and not always waiting to pounce on the government to discredit it. Our democratic system is bound to get grievously hurt, if the people in power do not rise to the occasion and face the glaring truth with courage, foresight and patience. It is only if a serious effort is made to live up to Gandhi code of morality that we can hope to strengthen the nation. No miraculous changes should be expected when an evil takes deep root in society; it is futile to expect to root it out in a flash.

Genuine socio-economic changes can be brought about if enlightened people help the government to fight the demon of corruption.

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