Communication and network concepts.
During the 20th century the key technology has been information gathering m processing and distribution.
1. Among other developments the installation of worldwide telephone networks, the birth and un-expected growth of the Computer Industry, and the launching of communication satellites.
2. As we have entered in 21st century, these area rapidly converging.
3. The old a single computer serving all of the organization needs, is rapidly being reposed by one in which a large number of separate but inter-connect computer do the job.
These systems are called computer networks
In simple words a networks or computer network is a group of two or more separate computers that are connected together or form a network
Tanenbaum (A famous networking writer) define the network as:-
“An inter-connected collection of autonomous (independent) computers.”
Need or advantages or goals of Computer Networking.
The major advantage of a computer network is that is allows file sharing and remote file access it means a person sitting at one workstation that is connected to a network can easily see files presents on another workstation, provided he is authorized to do so. This saves the hassle of carrying a storage device every time data needs to be transported from one system to another. Further, a central database means that anyone on that network can access the file or updated.
Resource Sharing :
Resource sharing is another important benefit of computer network for example, if there are 12 employees in an organization, each having their own computer, they will require 12 printers, if they want to use the resource at the same time.
A computer network provides a cheaper alternative by the provision resource sharing. Here, all the computers can be interconnected using a network and just one printer can efficiently provide services to 12 users.
Shared resources means reduction in hardware cost.
Shared files means reduction in memory requirements, which indirectly means reduction in file storage expenses.
A particular software can be installed only once on the server and made available across all connected computers at once.